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Senin, 17 April 2017

Coloring Book For Adults Secret Garden Pdf

Coloring Book For Adults Secret Garden Pdf

how to analyze people on sight through the science of human analysis the five human types by elsie lincoln benedict and ralph paine benedict printed and boundby the roycrofters at their shops in east auroran. y. copyright, 1921by elsie lincoln benedict and ralph paine benedict

all rights reserved we thank you ⶠto the following men and women we wishto express our appreciation for their share in the production of this book: _to_ duren j. h. ward, ph. d., formerly ofthe anthropology department of harvard university, who, as the discovererof the fourth human type, has added immeasurably to the world's knowledgeof human science. _to_ raymond h. lufkin, of boston, who madethe illustrations for this volume scientifically accurate.

_to_ the roycrofters, of east aurora, whoseartistic workmanship made it into a thing of beauty. _and last but not least,_ _to_ sarah h. young, of san francisco, ourbusiness manager, whose efficiency correlated all these and placedthe finished product in the hands of our students. the authors _new york city, june, 1921_ dedicatedto

our students contents page human analysis 11 chapter ithe alimentive type 37 "_the enjoyer_" chapter iithe thoracic type 83 "_the thriller_" chapter iiithe muscular type 133

"_the worker_" chapter ivthe osseous type 177 "_the stayer_" chapter vthe cerebral type 217 "_the thinker_" chapter vitypes that should and should not marry each other 263 chapter viivocations for each type 311 what leading newspapers say about elsie lincolnbenedict and her work

"over fifty thousand people heard elsie lincolnbenedict at the city auditorium during her six weeks lecture engagementin milwaukee."-- _milwaukee leader, april 2, 1921._ "elsie lincoln benedict has a brilliant record.she is like a fresh breath of colorado ozone. her ideas are asstimulating as the health-giving breezes of the rockies."--_newyork evening mail, april 16, 1914._ "several hundred people were turned away fromthe masonic temple last night where elsie lincoln benedict, famoushuman analyst, spoke on 'how

to analyze people on sight.' asked how shecould draw and hold a crowd of 3,000 for a lecture, she said: 'becausei talk on the one subject on earth in which every individual is most interested--himself.'"--_seattletimes, june 2, 1920._ "elsie lincoln benedict is a woman who hasstudied deeply under genuine scientists and is demonstrating to thousandsat the auditorium each evening that she knows the connection betweenan individual's external characteristics and his inner traits."--_minneapolisnews, november 7, 1920._ "elsie lincoln benedict is known nationally,having conducted lecture

courses in many of the large eastern cities.her work is based upon the practical methods of modern science as workedout in the world's leading laboratories where exhaustive tests are appliedto determine individual types, talents, vocational bents and possibilities."--_sanfrancisco bulletin, january 25, 1919._ it's nothow much you know but whatyou can dothat counts human analysis--the x-ray

_modern science has proved that the fundamentaltraits of every individual are indelibly stamped in the shapeof his body, head, face and hands--an x-ray by which you can readthe characteristics of any person on sight._ the most essential thing in the world to anyindividual is to understand _himself_. the next is to understand the otherfellow. for life is largely a problem of running your own caras it was built to be run, plus getting along with the other driverson the highway. from this book you are going to learn whichtype of car you are and the

main reasons why you have not been gettingthe maximum of service out of yourself. also you are going to learn the makes of otherhuman cars, and how to get the maximum of co-operation out of them.this co-operation is vital to happiness and success. we come in contactwith our fellowman in all the activities of our lives and what we getout of life depends, to an astounding degree, on our relations with him. reaction to environment ⶠthe greatest problem facing any organismis successful reaction to its

environment. environment, speaking scientifically,is the sum total of your experiences. in plain united states,this means fitting vocationally, socially and maritally intothe place where you are. if you don't fit you must move or change yourenvironment to fit _you_. if you can't change the environment and youwon't move you will become a failure, just as tropical plants fail whentransplanted to the nevada desert. learn from the sagebrush ⶠbut there is something that grows and keepson growing in the nevada

desert--the sagebrush. it couldn't move awayand it couldn't change its waterless environment, so it did what youand i must do if we expect to succeed. it adapted itself to its environment,and there it stands, each little stalwart shrub a reminder of what evena plant can do when it tries! moving won't help much ⶠhuman life faces the same alternativesthat confront all other forms of life--of adapting itself to the conditionsunder which it must live or becoming extinct. you have an advantageover the sagebrush in that

you can move from your city or state or countryto another, but after all that is not much of an advantage. forthough you may improve your situation slightly you will still find thatin any civilized country the main elements of your problem are the same. understand yourself and others ⶠso long as you live in a civilized or thicklypopulated community you will still need to understand your own natureand the natures of other people. no matter what you desire of life,other people's aims, ambitions and activities constitute vitalobstructions along your

pathway. you will never get far without theco-operation, confidence and comradeship of other men and women. primitive problems ⶠit was not always so. and its recentnessin human history may account for some of our blindness to this great fact. in primitive times people saw each other rarelyand had much less to do with each other. the human element was thennot the chief problem. their environmental problems had to do with suchthings as the elements, violent storms, extremes of heat and cold,darkness, the ever-present

menace of wild beasts whose flesh was theirfood, yet who would eat them first unless they were quick in brain andbody. civilization's changes ⶠbut all that is changed. man has subjugatedall other creatures and now walks the earth its supreme sovereign.he has discovered and invented and builded until now we live inskyscrapers, talk around the world without wires and by pressing a buttonturn darkness into daylight. causes of failure

ⶠyet with all our knowledge of the outsideworld ninety-nine lives out of every hundred are comparative failures. ⶠthe reason is plain to every scientificinvestigator. we have failed to study ourselves in relation to the greatenvironmental problem of today. the stage-setting has been changedbut not the play. the game is the same old game--you must adjust and adaptyourself to your environment or it will destroy you. mastering his own environment ⶠthe cities of today _look_ different fromthe jungles of our ancestors

and we imagine that because the brain of manovercame the old menaces no new ones have arisen to take their place.we no longer fear extermination from cold. we turn on the heat.we are not afraid of the vast oceans which held our primitive forebearsin thrall, but pass swiftly, safely and luxuriously over theirsurfaces. and soon we shall be breakfasting in new york and dining thesame evening in san francisco! facing new enemies ⶠbut in building up this stupendous superstructureof modern

civilization man has brought into being asociety so intricate and complex that he now faces the new environmentalproblem of human relationships. the modern spider's web ⶠtoday we depend for life's necessitiesalmost wholly upon the activities of others. the work of thousandsof human hands and thousands of human brains lies back of every meal youeat, every journey you take, every book you read, every bed in which yousleep, every telephone conversation, every telegram you receive,every garment you wear.

and this fellowman of ours has multiplied,since that dim distant dawn, into almost two billion human beings, withat least one billion of them after the very things you want, and not atenth enough to go around! adapt or die ⶠwho will win? nature answers for you. shehas said with awful and inexorable finality that, whether you area blade of grass on the nevada desert or a man in the streets of london,you can win only as you adapt yourself to your environment. today our environmentalproblem consists largely of the other fellow. only those wholearn to adapt themselves to

their fellows can win great or lasting rewards. externals indicate internal nature ⶠto do this it is necessary to better understandour neighbors--to recognize that people differ from each otherin their likes and dislikes, traits, talents, tendencies andcapabilities. the combination of these makes each individual's nature. itis not difficult to understand others for with each group of thesetraits there always goes its corresponding physical makeup--the externalswhereby the internal is invariably indicated. this is true of everyspecies on the globe and of

every subdivision within each species. significance of size, shape and structure ⶠall dogs belong to the same species butthere is a great difference between the "nature" of a st. bernard andthat of a terrier, just as there is a decided difference between thenatures of different human beings. but in both instances the actions,reactions and habits of each can be accurately anticipated on sight bythe shape, size and structure of the two creatures. differences in breed

ⶠwhen a terrier comes into the room youinstinctively draw away unless you want to be jumped at and greeted effusively.but you make no such movement to protect yourself from a st. bernardbecause you read, on sight, the different natures of these twofrom their external appearance. ⶠyou know a rose, a violet, a sunflowerand an orchid and what perfume you are sure to find in each, by the samemethod. all are flowers and all belong to the same species, just as allhuman beings belong to the same species. but their respective size, shapeand structure tell you in

advance and on sight what their respectivecharacteristics are. the same is true of all human beings. theydiffer in certain fundamentals but always and invariably inaccordance with their differences in size, shape and structure. the instinct of self-preservation ⶠthe reason for this is plain. goaded bythe instinct of self-preservation, man, like all other livingthings, has made heroic efforts to meet the demands of his environment.he has been more successful than any other creature and is,as a result, the most complex

organism on the earth. but his most bafflingcomplexities resolve themselves into comparatively simple termsonce it is recognized that each internal change brought about by hisenvironment brought with it the corresponding external mechanism withoutwhich he could not have survived. interrelation of body and brain ⶠso today we see man a highly evolved creaturewho not only acts but thinks and feels. all these thoughts, feelingsand emotions are interrelated.

the body and the mind of man are so closelybound together that whatever affects one affects the other. an instantaneouschange of mind instantly changes the muscles of the face. a violentthought instantly brings violent bodily movements. movies and face muscles ⶠthe moving picture industry--said to bethe third largest in the world--is based largely on this interrelation.this industry would become extinct if something were to happento sever the connection between external expressions and the internalnature of men and women.

tells fundamentals ⶠhow much do external characteristics tellabout a man? they tell, with amazing accuracy, all the basic, fundamentalprincipal traits of his nature. the size, shape and structure of aman's body tell more important facts about his real self--whathe thinks and what he does--than the average mother ever knows abouther own child. learning to read ⶠif this sounds impossible, if the seemingincongruity, multiplicity and heterogeneity of human qualities havebaffled you, remember that

this is exactly how the print in all booksand newspapers baffled you before you learned to read. not long ago i was reading stories aloud toa three-year old. she wanted to "see the pictures," and when told therewere none had to be shown the book. "what funny little marks!" she cried, pointingto the print. "how do you get stories out of them?" printing looked to all of us at first justmasses of meaningless little marks.

but after a few days at school how thingsdid begin to clear up! it wasn't a jumble after all. there was somethingto it. it straightened itself out until the funny little marks becamesignificant. each of them had a meaning and the same meaning under allconditions. through them your whole outlook on life became deepenedand broadened--all because you learned the meaning of twenty-six littleletters and their combinations! reading people ⶠlearning to read men and women is a moredelightful process than

learning to read books, for every person yousee is a true story, more romantic and absorbing than any ever boundin covers. learning to read people is also a simplerprocess than learning to read books because there are fewer letters in thehuman alphabet. though man seems to the untrained eye a mystifying massof "funny little marks," he is not now difficult to analyze. only a few feelings ⶠthis is because there are after all buta few kinds of human feelings. some form of hunger, love, hate, fear, hopeor ambition gives rise to

every human emotion and every human thought. thoughts bring actions ⶠnow our actions follow our thoughts. everythought, however transitory, causes muscular action, whichleaves its trace in that part of the physical organism which is most closelyallied to it. physiology and psychology interwoven ⶠlook into the mirror the next time youare angry, happy, surprised, tired or sorrowful and note the changes wroughtby your emotions in your facial muscles.

constant repetition of the same kinds of thoughtsor emotions finally makes permanent changes in that part of thebody which is physiologically related to these mental processes. the evolution of the jaw ⶠthe jaw is a good illustration of thisalliance between the mind and the body. its muscles and bones are so closelyallied to the pugnacity instinct center in the brain that the slightestthought of combat causes the jaw muscles to stiffen. let the thoughtof any actual physical encounter go through your mind and your jawbone will automatically move

upward and outward. after a lifetime of combat, whether by fistsor words, the jaw sets permanently a little more upward and outward--alittle more like that of the bulldog. it keeps to this combative mold,"because," says mother nature, the great efficiency expert, "if youare going to call on me constantly to stiffen that jaw i'll fix itso it will stay that way and save myself the trouble." inheritance of acquired traits ⶠthus the more combative jaw, having becomepermanent in the man's

organism, can be passed on to his children. ⶠright here comes a most interesting lawand one that has made possible the science of human analysis: law of size ⶠ_the larger any part or organ the betterits equipment for carrying out the work of that organ and the more doesit tend to express itself._ nature is an efficiency expert and doesn'tgive you an oversupply of anything without demanding that you use it. jaws becoming smaller

ⶠour ancestors developed massive jaws asa result of constant combat. as fast as civilization decreased the necessityfor combat nature decreased the size of the average human jaw. meaning of the big jaw ⶠbut wherever you see a large protrudingjaw you see an individual "armed and engined," as kipling says, forsome kind of fighting. the large jaw always goes with a combative nature,whether it is found on a man or a woman, a child, a pugilist or a minister. exhibit a--the irishman

ⶠthe large jaw, therefore, is seen to beboth a result and a cause of certain things. as the inheritance of a fightingancestor it is the result of millions of years of fighting inprehistoric times, and, like any other over-developed part or organ, ithas an intense urge to express itself. this inherent urge is whatmakes the owner of that jaw "fight at the drop of the hat," and oftenhave "a chip on his shoulder." natural selection ⶠthus, because every external characteristicis the result of natural laws, and chiefly of natural selection, thevital traits of any creature

can be read from his externals. every studentof biology, anatomy, anthropology, ethnology or psychology is familiarwith these facts. built to fit ⶠman's organism has developed, altered,improved and evolved "down through the slow revolving years" with oneinstinctive aim--successful reaction to its environment. every part hasbeen laboriously constructed to that sole end. because of this its functionsare marked as clearly upon it as those of a grain elevator, a steamshipor a piano. survival of the fittest

ⶠnature has no accidents, she wastes nomaterial and everything has a purpose. if you put up a good fight to liveshe will usually come to your rescue and give you enough of whateveris needed to tide you over. if you don't, she says you are not fit topeople the earth and lets you go without a pang. thus she weeds out allbut the strong--and evolution marches on. causes of racial characteristics ⶠthis inherent potentiality for alteringthe organism to meet the demands of the environment is especially noticeablein races and is the

reason for most racial differences. differences in environment--climate, altitudeand topography necessitated most of these physical differentiationswhich today enable us to know at a glance whether a man belongsto the white race, the yellow race, or the black race. the resultsof these differentiations and modifications will be told in the variouschapters of this book. types earlier than races ⶠthe student of human analysis reads thedisposition and nature of every individual with ease regardless of whetherthat individual be an

american, a frenchman, a kaffir or a chinaman,because human analysis explains those fundamental traits which runthrough every race, color and nationality, according to the externalswhich always go with those traits. five biological types ⶠ_human analysis differs from every othersystem of character analysis in that it classifies man, for the first time,into five types according to his biological evolution._ ⶠit deals with man in the light of the mostrecent scientific

discoveries. it estimates each individualaccording to his "human" qualities rather than his "character" or so-called"moral" qualities. in other words, it takes his measure as a humanbeing and determines from his externals his chances for success in theworld of today. these rules work ⶠevery rule in this book is based on scientificdata, has been proved to be accurate by investigations and surveysof all kinds of people in all parts of the world. these rules do not work merely _part_ of thetime. they work _all_ the

time, under all conditions and apply to everyindividual of every race, every color, every country, every communityand every family. through this latest human science you canlearn to read people as easily as you read books--if you will take the littletime and pains to learn the rules which compose your working alphabet. do what we want to do ⶠit is easy to know what an individual willdo under most circumstances because every human being does what he _wants_to do in the _way_ he prefers to do it _most_ of the time. if youdoubt it try this test:

bring to mind any intimate friends, or eventhat husband or wife, and note how few changes they have made in theirway of doing things in twenty years! preferences inborn ⶠevery human being is born with preferencesand predilections which manifest themselves from earliest childhoodto death. these inborn tendencies are never obliterated and seldomcontrolled to any great extent, and then only by individuals who havelearned the power of the mind over the body. inasmuch as this knowledgeis possessed by only a

few, most of the people of the earth are blindlyfollowing the dictates of their inborn leanings. follow our bents ⶠin other words, more than ninety-nine percent of all the people you know are following their natural bents inreacting to all their experiences--from the most trivial incidentsto the most far-reaching emergencies. "took it" from grandmother ⶠthe individual is seldom conscious of thesehabitual acts of his, much

less of where he got them. the nearest hecomes is to say he "got it from his father" or "she takes it from grandmother."but where did grandmother get it? man no mystery ⶠscience has taken the trouble to investigateand today we know not only where grandmother got it but what she didwith it. she got it along with her size, shape and structure--in other words,from her type--and she did just what you and everybody else does withhis type-characteristics. she acted in accordance with her type just asa canary sings like a canary

instead of talking like a parrot, and justas a rose gives off rose perfume instead of violet. this law holds throughout every species andexplains man--who likes to think himself a deep mystery--as it explainsevery other creature. the hold of habit ⶠlook around you in shop, office, fieldor home and you will find that the quick, alert, impulsive man is actingquickly, alertly and impulsively most of the time. nothing lessthan a calamity slows him down and then only temporarily; while theslow, patient, mild and

passive individual is acting slowly, patiently,mildly and passively in spite of all goads. some overwhelming passionor crisis may speed him up momentarily but as soon as it fades he revertsto his old slow habits. significance of fat, bone and muscle ⶠhuman analysis is the new science whichshows you how to recognize the slow man, the quick man, the stubborn man,the yielding man, the leader, the learner, and all other basic kinds ofmen on sight from the shape, size and structure of their bodies. certain bodily shapes indicate predispositionsto fatness, leanness,

boniness, muscularity and nervousness, andthis predisposition is so much a part of the warp and woof of the individualthat he can not disguise it. the urge given him by this inbornmechanism is so strong as to be practically irresistible. every experienceof his life calls forth some kind of reaction and invariablythe reaction will be similar, in every vital respect, to the reactionsof other people who have bodies of the same general size, shapeand structure as his own. succeed at what we like ⶠno person achieves success or happinesswhen compelled to do what he

naturally dislikes to do. since these likesand dislikes stay with him to the grave, one of the biggest modern problemsis that of helping men and women to discover and to capitalize theirinborn traits. enthusiasm and self-expression ⶠevery individual does best those thingswhich permit him to act in accordance with his natural bents. this explainswhy we like best those things we do best. it takes real enthusiasmto make a success of any undertaking for nothing less than enthusiasmcan turn on a full current. we struggle from the cradle to the grave forself-expression and

everything that pushes us in a direction opposedto our natural tendencies is done half-heartedly, inefficientlyand disgruntledly. these are the steps that lead straight tofailure. yet failure can be avoided and success approximated by everynormal person if he will take the same precaution with his own machinerythat he takes with his automobile. learn to drive your car ⶠif you were presented with a car by yourancestors--which is precisely what happened to you at birth--youwould not let an hour go by

without finding out what make or type of carit was. before a week elapsed you would have taken the time, laborand interest to learn how to run it,--not merely any old way, but the_best_ way for that particular make of car. five makes of human cars ⶠthere are five makes or types of humancars, differing as definitely in size, shape and structure as fords differfrom pierce-arrows. each human type differs as widely in its capacities,possibilities and aptitudes as a ford differs from a the ford or pierce

the externals indicate these functional differenceswith unfailing accuracy. furthermore just as a ford neverchanges into a pierce nor a pierce into a ford, a human being never changeshis type. he may modify it, train it, polish it or control it somewhat,but he will never change it. can not be deceived ⶠthe student of human analysis cannot bedeceived as to the type of any individual any more than you can be deceivedabout the make of a car. one may "doll up" a ford to his heart's content--removethe hood and top

and put on custom-made substitutes--it isstill a ford, always will be a ford and you can always detect that it isa ford. it will do valuable, necessary things but only those things itwas designed to do and in its own particular manner; nor could a pierceact like a ford. are you a ford or a pierce? ⶠso it is with human cars. maybe you havebeen awed by the jewels and clothes with which many human fords disguisethemselves. the chances are that you have overlooked a dozen pierces thisweek because their paint was rusty. perchance you are a pierce yourself,drawing a ford salary

because you don't know you are a high-poweredmachine capable of making ten times the speed you have been making onyour highway of life. superficialities sway us ⶠif so your mistake is only natural. theworld classifies human beings according to their superficialities. to theworld a human motorcycle can pass for a rolls-royce any day if sufficientlycamouflaged with diamonds, curls, french heels and pluckedeyebrows. bicycles in congress ⶠin the same manner many a bicycle in humanform gets elected to

congress because he plays his machinery forall it is worth and gets a hundred per cent service out of it. everysuch person learned early in life what kind of car he was and capitalizedits natural tendencies. don't judge by veneer ⶠnothing is more unsafe than to attemptto judge the actual natures of people by their clothes, houses, religiousfaith, political affiliations, prejudices, dialect, etiquetteor customs. these are only the veneer laid on by upbringing, teachers,preachers, traditions and other forces of suggestion, and it is a veneerso thin that trifles

scratch it off. the real always there ⶠbut the real individual is always there,filled with the tendencies of his type, bending always toward them, constantlyseeking opportunities to run as he was built to run, forever strivingtoward self-expression. it is this ever-active urge which causes himto revert, in the manifold activities of everyday life, to the methods,manners and peculiarities common to his type. this means that unless he gets into an environment,a vocation and a

marriage which permits of his doing what he_wants_ to do he will be miserable, inefficient, unsuccessful and sometimescriminal. causes of crime ⶠthat this is the true explanation of crimehas been recognized for many years by leading thinkers. two prisonwardens--thomas tynan of colorado and thomas mott osborne of sing sing--effectivelyinitiated penal reforms based upon it. every crime, like every personal problem,arises from some kind of situation wherein instinct is thwarted byoutside influence.

ⶠhuman analysis teaches you to recognize,on sight, the predominant instincts of any individual--in brief, whatthat individual is inclined to do under all the general situations ofhis life. you know what the world tries to compel him to do. if the discrepancybetween these two is beyond the reach of his type he refuses todo what society demands. this and this only is back of every humandigression from indiscretion to murder. it is as vain to expect to eradicate theseinborn trends and put others in their places as to make a sewing machineout of an airplane or an oak

out of a pine. the most man can do for hisneighbor is to understand and inspire him. the most he can do for himselfis to understand and organize his inborn capacities. find your own type ⶠthe first problem of your happiness isto find out what type you are yourself--which you will know after readingthis book--and to build your future accordingly. knowing and helping others ⶠthe second is to learn how to analyze othersto the end that your

relationships with them may be harmoniousand mutually advantageous. take every individual according to the wayhe was born, accept him as that kind of mechanism and deal with him inthe manner befitting that mechanism. in this way and this only willyou be able to impress or to help others. in this way only will you be able to achievereal success. in this way only will you be able to help your fellowmanfind the work, the environment and the marriage wherein he canbe happy and successful. the four c's

ⶠto get the maximum of pleasure and knowledgeout of this interesting course there are four things to remember as_your_ part of the contract. read concentratedly ⶠthink of _what_ you are reading _while_you are reading it. concentration is a very simple thing. thenext c is observe carefully ⶠlook at people carefully (but not starefully)when analyzing them. don't jump at conclusions. we humans havea great way of twisting facts to fit our conclusion as soon as we have madeone. but don't spend all

your time getting ready to decide and forgetto decide at all, like the man who was going to jump a ditch. he ranso far back to get a good start each time that he never had the strengthto jump when he got there. get a good start by observing carefully.then decide confidently ⶠbe sure you are right and then go ahead.make a decision and make it with the confidence that you are right. ifyou will determine now to follow this rule it will compel you to followthe first two because, in order to be sure you are right, to be certainyou are not misjudging

anybody, you will read each rule concentratedlyand observe each person carefully beforehand. practise constantly ⶠ"practice makes perfect." take this foryour motto if you would become expert in analyzing people. it is one easilyfollowed for you come in contact with people everywhere--at home, amongstyour business associates, with your friends and on the street.remember you can only benefit from a thing as you use it. a carthat you never took out of the garage would be of no value to you. so getfull value out of this course

by using it at all times. these rules your tools ⶠthese rules are scientific. they are trueand they are true always. they are very valuable tools for the furtheranceof your progress through life. an understanding of people is the greatestweapon you can possess. therefore these are the most precious toolsyou can own. but like every tool in the world and all knowledge in theworld, they must be used as they were built to be used or you will getlittle service out of them.

you would not expect to run a car properlywithout paying the closest attention to the rules for clutches, brakes,starters and gears. everything scientific is based not on guessesbut laws. this course in analyzing people on sight is as scientificas the automobile. it will carry you far and do it easily if you willdo your part. your part consists of learning the few simple ruleslaid down in this book and in applying them in the everyday affairs of yourlife. fewer and truer ⶠmany things which have been found to betrue in almost every instance

could have been included in this course. butwe prefer to make fewer statements and have those of bedrock certainty.therefore this course, like all our courses, consists exclusivelyof those facts which have been found to be true in every particularof people in normal health. important the five extremes ⶠthis book deals with pure or unmixed typesonly. when you understand these, the significance of their several combinationsas seen in everyday life will be clear to you.

the human alphabet ⶠjust as you can not understand the meaningof a word until you know the letters that go into the makeup of thatword, you cannot analyze people accurately until you get these fiveextreme types firmly in your mind, for they are your alphabet. founded in five biological systems ⶠeach pure type is the result of the over-developmentof one of the five biological systems possessed by all humanbeings--the nutritive, circulatory, muscular, bony or nervous.

therefore every individual exhibits to somedegree the characteristics of all the five types. the secret of individuality ⶠbut his predominant traits and individuality--thethings that make him the kind of man he is--agree infallibly withwhichever one of the five systems predominates in him. combinations common in america ⶠthe average american man or woman is acombination of some two of these types with a third discernible in thebackground.

to analyze people ⶠto understand human beings familiarizeyourself first with the pure or unmixed types and then it will be easy andfascinating to spell out their combinations and what they mean in thepeople all about you. postpone combinations ⶠuntil you have learned these pure typesthoroughly it will be to your advantage to forget that there is such a thingas combinations. after you have these extreme types well in mindyou will be ready to analyze combinations.

the five types ⶠscience has discovered that there are fivetypes of human beings. discarding for a moment their technical names,they may be called the fat people, the florid people, the muscularpeople, the bony people and the mental people. each varies from the others in shape, sizeand structure and is recognizable at a glance by his physique orbuild. this is because his type is determined by the preponderance withinhis body of one of the five great departments or biological systems--thenutritive, the

circulatory, the muscular, the bony or thenervous. at birth ⶠevery child is born with one of these systemsmore highly developed, larger and better equipped than the others. type never disappears ⶠthroughout his life this system will expressitself more, be more intense and constant in its functioning thanthe others and no manner of training, education, environment or experience,so long as he remains in normal health, will alter the predominanceof this system nor prevent

its dictating his likes, dislikes and mostof his reactions. effect of eating ⶠif you do not understand why the overactionof one bodily system should influence a man's nature see if youcan't recall more than one occasion when a square meal made a decideddifference in your disposition within the space of thirty minutes. if one good meal has the power to alter socompletely our personalities temporarily, is it then any wonder that constantoverfeeding causes everybody to love a fat man? for the fat manis habitually and

chronically in that beatific state which comesfrom over-eating. [illustration: 1 alimentive the enjoyer] chapter i the alimentive type "the enjoyer" _note: bear in mind at the beginning of thisand every other chapter, that we are describing the extreme or unmixedtype. before leaving this book you will understand combination typesand should read people as readily as you now read your newspaper._

those individuals in whom the alimentive systemis more highly developed than any other are called alimentives. thealimentive system consists of the stomach, intestines, alimentary canaland every part of the assimilative apparatus. physical rotundity ⶠa general rotundity of outline characterizesthis type. he is round in every direction. fat rolls away from his elbows,wrists, knees and shoulders. (see chart 1) the fat, overweight individual

ⶠsoft flesh thickly padded over a small-bonedbody distinguishes the pure alimentive type. in men of this typethe largest part of the body is around the girth; in women it is aroundthe hips. these always indicate a large nutritive system in goodworking order. fat is only surplus tissue--the amount manufactured bythe assimilative system over and above the needs of the body. fat is more soft and spongy than bone or muscleand lends to its wearer a softer structure and appearance. small hands and feet

ⶠbecause his bones are small the pure alimentivehas small feet and small hands. how many times you have notedwith surprise that the two hundred pound woman had tiny feet! the inconvenienceof "getting around" which you have noticed in her is due to thefact that while she has more weight to carry she has smaller than averagefeet with which to do it. the pure alimentive head ⶠa head comparatively small for the bodyis another characteristic of the extreme alimentive. the neck and lowerpart of the head are covered with rolls of fat. this gives the head theeffect of spreading outward

from the crown as it goes down to the neck,thus giving the neck a short, disproportionately large appearance. the round-faced person ⶠa "full-moon" face with double or triplechins gives this man his "baby face." (see chart 2) look carefullyat any extremely fat person and you will see that his features are inclinedto the same immaturity of form that characterizes his body. very few fat men have long noses. nearly allfat men and women have not only shorter, rounder noses but shorter upperlips, fuller mouths,

rounder eyes and more youthful expressionsthan other people--in short, the features of childhood. the entire physical makeup of this type ismodeled upon the circle--round hands with dimples where theknuckles are supposed to be; round fingers, round feet, round waist, roundlimbs, sloping shoulders, curving thighs, bulging calves, wrists andankles. [illustration: 2 typical alimentive face] wherever you see curves predominating in thephysical outlines of any person, that person is largely of the alimentivetype and will always

exhibit alimentive traits. the man of few movements ⶠthe alimentive is a man of unhurried, undulatingmovements. the difficulty in moving large bodies quicklynecessitates a slowing down of all his activities. these people are easefulin their actions, make as few moves as possible and thereby lend anair of restfulness wherever they go. because it is difficult to turn their heads,extremely fat people seldom are aware of what goes on behind them.

the fat man's walk ⶠvery fat people waddle when they walk,though few of them realize it. they can not watch themselves go by and noone else has the heart to impart bad news to this pleasant person. spilling over chairs ⶠthe fat man spills over chairs and outof his clothes. big arm chairs, roomy divans and capacious automobiles areveritable dykes to these men. note the bee-line the fat person makes forthe big leather chair when he enters a room!

clothes for comfort ⶠthe best that money can buy are the kindsof clothes purchased by the alimentive whenever he can afford them. andit often happens that he can afford them, especially if the cerebral systemcomes second in his makeup. if he is in middle circumstances hisclothes will be chosen chiefly for comfort. even the rich alimentive"gets into something loose" as soon as he is alone. baggy trousers,creased sleeves, soft collars and soft cuffs are seen most frequentlyon fat men. comfort is one of the very first aims of thistype. to attain it he

often wears old shoes or gloves long pasttheir time to save breaking in a new pair. susceptible to cold ⶠcold weather affects this type. if youwill look about you the first cold day of autumn you will note that mostof the overcoats are on the plump men. how the fat man talks ⶠnever to take anything too seriously isan unconscious policy of fat people. they show it plainly in their actionsand speech. the very fat

man is seldom a brilliant conversationalist.he is often a "jollier" and tells stories well, especially anecdotesand personal experiences. doesn't tell his troubles ⶠhe seldom relates his troubles and oftenappears not to have any. he avoids references to isms and ologies andgives a wide berth to all who deal in them. radical groups seldom numberany extremely fat men among their members, and when they do it is usuallyfor some other purpose than those mentioned in the by-laws. the very fat man dislikes argument, avoidsdisagreeing with you and

sticks to the outer edges of serious questionsin his social conversation. the fat man "lives to eat" ⶠrich food in large quantities is enjoyedby the average fat man three times a day and three hundred and sixty-fivedays a year. between meals he usually manages to stow away a generoussupply of candy, ice cream, popcorn and fruit. we have interviewed countlesspopcorn and fruit vendors on this subject and every one of themtold us that the fat people kept them in business.

visits the soda fountain often ⶠas for the ice cream business, take a lookthe next time you pass a soda fountain and note the large percentageof fat people joyfully scooping up mountains of sundaes, parfaitsand banana splits. you will find that of those who are sipping thingsthrough straws the thin folks are negotiating lemonades and phosphates,while a creamy frapp㩠is rapidly disappearing from the fat man's glass. the deep mystery ⶠ"what do you suppose is making me so plump?"naively inquires the fat

man when it finally occurs to him--as it didto his friends long before--that he is surely and speedily takingon flesh. if you don't know the answer, look at thetable of any fat person in any restaurant, cafã© or dining room. he is eatingwith as much enthusiasm as if he had just been rescued from a forty-dayfast, instead of having only a few hours before looked an equallygenerous meal in the eye and put it all under his belt. the next time youare at an american plan hotel where meals are restricted to certainhours note how the fat people are always the first ones into thedining room when the doors are

opened! fat-making foods ⶠbutter, olive oil, cream, pastry and starchesare foods that increase your weight just as fast as you eat them,if your assimilative system is anything like it should be. though he is thelast man in the world who ought to indulge in them the fat man likesthese foods above all others and when compelled to have a meal withoutthem feels as though he hadn't eaten at all. why they don't lose weight

ⶠwe had a friend who decided to reduce.but in spite of the fact that she lived on salads almost exclusively fora week she kept right on gaining. we thought she had been surreptitiouslytreating herself to lunches between meals until some one noticedthe dressing with which she drowned her lettuce: pure olive oil--a cupfulat a sitting--"because," she said "i must have something tasty to camouflagethe stuff." an experiment ⶠonce in california, where no city blockis complete without its cafeteria, we took a committee from one ofour human analysis classes to

six of these big establishments one illustrate to them the authenticity of the facts we have stated abovewe prophesied what the fat ones would select for their meals. without exception their trays came by heapedwith pies, cake, cream, starchy vegetables and meat, just as we predicted. a short life but a merry one ⶠaccording to the statistics of the unitedstates life insurance companies fat people die younger than others.and the insurance companies ought to know, for upon knowinginstead of guessing what it is

that takes us off, depends the whole lifeinsurance business. that they consider the extremely fat man an unsafe riskafter thirty years of age is a well-known fact. "i am interrupted every day by salesmen foreverything on earth except one. but the life insurance agents leave mealone!" laughed a very fat young lawyer friend of ours the other morning--andhe went on ordering ham and eggs, waffles, potatoes and coffee! that he is eating years off his life doesn'ttrouble the fat man, however. he has such a good time doing it!

"i should worry," says the fat man ⶠit was no accident that "ish ka bibble"was invented by the hebrew. for this race has proportionately more fatpeople in it than any other and fat people just naturally believe worryis useless. but the fat man gets this philosophy from the same sourcethat gives him most of his other traits--his predominating system. digestion and contentment ⶠthe eating of delicious food is one ofthe most intense and poignant pleasures of life. the digestion of food,when one possesses the

splendid machinery for it which characterizesthe alimentive, gives a deep feeling of serenity and contentment. since the fat man is always just going toa big meal or in the process of digesting one he does not give himselfa chance to become ill natured. his own and the world's troublessit lightly upon him. the most popular type socially ⶠ"the life of the party" is the fat manor that pleasing, adaptable, feminine creature, the fat woman. no matterwhat comes or goes they have a good time and it is such an infectious onethat others catch it from

them. did you ever notice how things pick up whenthe fat ones appear? every hostess anticipates their arrival with pleasureand welcomes them with relief. she knows that she can relax now,and sure enough, fatty hasn't his hat off till the atmosphere shows the time chubby gets into the parlor and passes a few of hersunny remarks the wheels are oiled for the evening and they don't rundown till the last plump guest has said good night. ⶠso it is no wonder that fat people spendalmost every evening at a

party. they get so many more invitations thanthe rest of us! likes complacent people ⶠpeople who take things as they find themare the ones the alimentive prefers for friends, not only because, likethe rest of us, he likes his own kind of folks, but because the other kindseem incongruous to him. he takes the attitude that resistance is awaste of energy. he knows other and easier ways of getting what he desires. there are types who take a lively interestin those who are different from them, but not the alimentive. he preferseasy-going, hospitable,

complacent friends whose homes and heartsare always open and whose minds run on the simple, personal things. ⶠthe reason for this is obvious. all ofus like the people, situations, experiences and environments which bring outour natural tendencies, which call into play those reflexes and reactionsto which we tend naturally. chooses food-loving friends ⶠ"let's have something to eat" is a phrasewhose hospitality has broken more ice and warmed more hearts than any other,unless perchance that

rapidly disappearing "let's have somethingto drink." the fat person keeps at the head of his list those homeysouls who set a good table and excel in the art of third and fourth helpings. because he is a very adaptable sort of individualthis type can reconcile himself to the other kind wheneverit serves his purpose. but the tenderest spots in his heart are reservedfor those who encourage him in his favorite indoor sport. when he doesn't like you ⶠa fat man seldom dislikes anybody veryhard or for very long.

really disliking anybody requires the expenditureof a good deal of energy and hating people is the most strenuouswork in the world. so the alimentive refuses to take even his dislikesto heart. he is a consistent conserver of steam and this factis one of the secrets of his success. he applies this principle to everything inlife. so he travels smoothly through his dealings with others. holds few grudges ⶠ"forget it" is another phrase originatedby the fat people. you will

hear them say it more often than any othertype. and what is more, they excel the rest of us in putting it into practice.the result is that their nerves are usually in better workingorder. this type runs down his batteries less frequently than any other. avoids the "ologists" ⶠwhen he takes the trouble to think aboutit there are a few kinds of people the alimentive does not care for. theman who is bent on discussing the problems of the universe, thehighbrow who wants to practise his new relativity lecture on him,the theorist who is given to

lengthy expatiations, and all advocates ofnew isms and ologies are avoided by the pure alimentive. he calls themfaddists, fanatics and fools. when he sees a highbrow approaching, insteadof having it out with him as some of the other types would, he findshe has important business somewhere else. thus he preserves his temperature,something that in the average fat man seldom goes far above normal. no theorist ⶠtheories are the bane of this type. hejust naturally doesn't believe

in them. scientific discoveries, unless theyhave to do with some new means of adding to his personal comforts,are taboo. the next time this one about "fat men dying young" is mentionedin his presence listen to his jolly roar. the speed with which he disposesof it will be beautiful to see! "say, i feel like a million dollars!" he willassure you if you read this chapter to him. "and i'll bet the folkswho wrote that book are a pair of grouches who have forgotten what asquare meal tastes like!" where the t-bones go

ⶠwhen you catch a three-inch steak homewardbound you will usually find it tucked under the arm of a well-roundedhouseholder. when his salary positively prohibits the comforts of parlor,bedroom and other parts of the house the fat man will still see to itthat the kitchen does not lack for provender. describes his food ⶠthe fat person likes to regale you withalluring descriptions of what he had for breakfast, what he has orderedfor lunch and what he is planning for dinner--and the rarebit he hason the program for after the

theater. eats his way to the grave ⶠmost of us are committing suicide by inchesin one form or another--and always in that form which isinherent in our type. the alimentive eats his way to the grave andhas at least this much to say for it: it is more delightful than thepet weaknesses by which the other types hasten the final curtain. diseases he is most susceptible to ⶠdiabetes is more common among this typethan any other. apoplexy comes

next, especially if the fat man is also aflorid man with a fast heart or an inclination to high blood pressure.a sudden breaking down of any or several of the vital organs is also likelyto occur to fat people earlier than to others. it is the price theypay for their years of over-eating. ⶠovertaxed heart, kidneys and liver areinevitable results of too much food. so the man you call "fat and husky" is fatbut _not_ husky, according to the statistics.

fat men and influenza ⶠduring the historic spanish influenza epidemicof 1918 more fat people succumbed than all other types combined. thisfact was a source of surprise and much discussion on the part ofnewspapers, but not of the scientists. the big question in treating thisdisease and its twin, pneumonia, is: will the heart hold out? fatseriously handicaps the heart. the fat man's ford engine ⶠthe human heart weighs less than a poundbut it is the one organ in

all our machinery that never takes a is the engine of the human car, and what a faithful little motor too--likethe ford engine which it so much resembles. if you live to be fortyit chugs away forty years, and if you stay here ninety it stretches itto ninety, without an instant of vacation. but it must be treated with considerationand the first consideration is not to overwork it. a ford engine is largeenough for a ford car, for fords are light weight. as long as you donot weigh too much your engine will carry you up the hills and down the dalesof life with good old

ford efficiency and at a pretty good gait. making a truck out of your ford ⶠbut when you take on fat you are doingto your engine what a ford driver would be doing to his if he loadedhis car with brick or scrap iron. a ford owner who intended to transport bricksthe rest of his life could get a big-cylinder engine and substitute itfor the original but you can't do that. this little four-cylinder affairis the only one you will ever have and no amount of money, positionor affection can buy you a

new one if you mistreat it. like the fordengine, it will stand for a good many pounds of excess baggage and stilldo good work. but if you load on too much and keep it there the daywill come when its cylinders begin to skip. ⶠyou may take it to the service stationand pay the doctors to grind the valves, fix your carbureter and put insome new spark plugs. these may work pretty well as long as you are travelingthe paved highway of perfect health; you may keep up with the processionwithout noticing anything particularly wrong.

but come to the hill of pneumonia or diabetesand you are very likely not to make the grade. don't "kill your engine" ⶠthe records in america show that thousandsof men and women literally "kill their engines" every year when theymight have lived many years longer. how each finds happiness ⶠwe live for happiness and each type findsits greatest happiness in following those innate urges determined bythe most highly-developed

system in its makeup. the alimentive's disposition, nature, characterand personality are built by and around his alimentary system.he is happiest when gratifying it and whenever he thwarts it heis miserable, just as the rest of us are when we thwart our predominantsystem. the world needs him ⶠthis type has so many traits needed bythe world, however, and has such extreme capacity for enjoying life thatthe race, not to mention himself, would profit greatly by his denyinghimself excessive amounts

of food. enjoyment the keynote of this type ⶠthe good things of life--rich, abundantfood and everything that serves the personal appetites--are the cravingsof this type. he purchases and uses more of the limousines,yachts and chefs than any other three types combined, and gets morefor his money out of them than others do. the keynote of his nature is personalenjoyment. his senses of touch and taste are also especially acute. the fat man loves comfort

ⶠyou can tell a great deal about a man'stype by noting for what classes of things he spends most of his extramoney. the alimentive may have no fire insurance,no liberty bonds, no real estate but he will have all the modern comfortshe can possibly afford. most of the world's millionaires are fat andhuman analysis explains why. we make few efforts in life save to satisfyour most urgent demands, desires, and ambitions. each humantype differs in its cravings from each of the others and takesthe respective means necessary to gratify these cravings.

the alimentive craves those luxuries, comfortsand conveniences which only money can procure for him. the fat millionaire ⶠwhen the alimentive is a man of brainshe uses his brains to get money. no fat person enjoys work but the greaterhis brain capacity the more will he forego leisure to make money. when the fat man is in average circumstances ⶠany man's money-making ambitions dependlargely on whether money is essential to the satisfaction of his predominatinginstincts.

if he is fat and of average brain capacityhe will overcome his physical inertia to the point of securing for himselfand his family most of the comforts of modern life. the average-brained fat man composes a largepercentage of our population and the above accounts for hisdeserved reputation as a generous husband and father. the fat man a good provider ⶠthe fat man will give his last cent tohis wife and children for the things they desire but he is not inclinedas much as some other types to

hearken to the woes of the world at large.the fat man is essentially a family man, a home man, a respectable, cottage-owning,tax-paying, peaceable citizen. not a reformer ⶠhe inclines to the belief that other families,other communities, other classes and other countries should workout their own salvation and he leaves them to do it. in all charitable,philanthropic and community "drives" he gives freely but isnot lavish nor sentimental about it. it is often a "business proposition"with him.

when the fat man is poor ⶠlove of ease is the fat man's worst enemy.his inherent contentment, accentuated by the inconvenience of movingabout easily or quickly, constantly tempts him to let things slide.when he lacks the brain capacity for figuring out ways and means forgetting things easily he is never a great success at anything. when the extremely fat man's mentality isbelow the average he often refuses to work--in which case he becomesa familiar figure around public rest rooms, parks and the cheaper hotellobbies. such a man

finally graduates into the class of professionalchair-warmers. fat people love leisure ⶠa chance to do as we please, especiallyto do as little hard work as possible, is a secret desire of almost everybody.but the fat man takes the prize for wanting it most. not a strenuous worker ⶠhe is not constructed to work hard likesome of the other types, as we shall see in subsequent chapters. his overweightis not only a handicap in that it slows down his movements, but ittends to slow down all his

vital processes as well and to overload hisheart. this gives him a chronic feeling of heaviness and inertia. everybody likes him ⶠbut nature must have intended fat peopleto manage the rest of us instead of taking a hand at the "heavy work."she made them averse to toil and then made them so likable that theycan usually get the rest of us to do their hardest work for them. the world managed by fat people ⶠwhen he is brainy the fat man never staysin the lower ranks of

subordinates. he may get a late start in anestablishment but he will soon make those _over_ him like him so wellthey will promote him to a chief-clerkship, a foremanship or a managership.once there he will make those _under_ him so fond of him that theywill work long and hard for him. fat men to the top ⶠin this way the fat man of real brainsgoes straight to the top while others look on and bewail the fact that theydo most of the actual work. they fail to recognize that the world alwayspays the big salaries not

for hand work but for head work, and not somuch for working yourself as for your ability to get others to work. the popular politician ⶠthis capacity for managing, controllingand winning others is what enables this type to succeed so well in politics.the fat man knows how to get votes. he mixes with everybody, jokeswith everybody, remembers to ask how the children are--and pretty soonhe's the head of his ward. almost every big political boss is fat. makes others work

ⶠone man is but one man and at best cando little more than a good man-size day of work. but a man who can inducea dozen other man-machines to speed up and turn out a fullday's work apiece doesn't need to work his own hands. he serves hisemployer more valuably as an overseer, foreman or supervisor. the fat salesman ⶠ"a fat drummer" is such a common phrasethat we would think our ears deceived us did anyone speak of a thin one.approach five people and say "a traveling salesman," each will tell youthat the picture this

conjures in his imagination is of a fat, round,roly-poly, good natured, pretty clever man whom everybody likes. for the fat men are "born salesmen" and theymake up a large percentage of that profession. salesmanship requiresmentality plus a pleasing personality. the fat man qualifies easilyin the matter of personality. then he makes little or much money from salesmanship,according to his mental capacity. the drummers' funny stories ⶠyou will note that the conversation offat people is well sprinkled

with funny stories. they enjoy a good jokebetter than any other type, for a reason which will become more and moreapparent to you. ⶠthat salesmen are popularly supposed toregale each customer with yarns till he gasps for breath and to gethis signature on the dotted line while he is in that weakened condition,is more or less of a myth. it originated from the fact that most salesmenare fat and that fat people tell stories well. jokes at fat men's expense ⶠ"look at fatty," "get a truck," and otherjibes greet the fat man on

every hand. he knows he can not proceed ablock without being the butt of several jokes, but he listens to them allwith an amiability surprising to other types. and this good natureis so apparent that even those who make sport of him are thinking tothemselves: "i believe i'd like that man." the fat man's habits ⶠ"never hurry and never worry" are the unconsciousstandards underlying many of the reactions of this type. if youwill compile a list of the habits of any fat person you will find thatthey are mostly the

outgrowths of one or both of these motives. won't speed up ⶠyou would have a hard time getting an alimentiveto follow out any protracted line of action calling for strenuosity,speed or high tension. he will get as much done as the strenuousman when their mentalities are equal--and often more. thefat person keeps going in a straight line, with uniform and uninterruptedeffort, and does not have the blow-outs common to more fidgety people.but hard, fast labor is not in his line.

loves comedy ⶠall forms of mental depression are foreignto fat people as long as they are in normal health. we have known afat husband and wife to be ejected for rent and spend the evening atthe movies laughing like four-year-olds at charlie chaplin or a macksennett comedy. you have sometimes seen fat people whose financialcondition was pretty serious and wondered how they could be so cheerful. inclined to indolence ⶠfat people's habits, being built aroundtheir points of strength and

weakness, are necessarily of two kinds--thedesirable and the undesirable. the worst habits of this type are those inevitableto the ease-loving and the immature-minded. indolence is one of his most undesirable traitsand costs the alimentive dear. in this country where energy, push and lightning-likeefficiency are at a premium only the fat man of brains can hopeto keep up. the inertia caused by his digestive processesis so great that it is

almost insurmountable. the heavy, lazy feelingyou have after a large meal is with the fat man interminably becausehis organism is constantly in the process of digesting large amountsof food. likes warm rooms ⶠlove of comfort--especially such thingsas warm rooms and soft beds--is so deeply imbedded in the fiber ofthis type that he has ever to face a fight with himself which the restof us do not encounter. this sometimes leads the excessively corpulentperson to relax into laziness and slovenliness. an obese individual sometimessurprises us, however,

by his ambition and immaculateness. but such a man or woman almost always combinesdecided mental tendencies with his alimentiveness. enjoys doing favors ⶠthe habits which endear the fat personto everyone and make us forget his faults are his never-failing hospitality,kindness when you are in trouble, his calming air of contentment, histact, good nature and the real pleasure he seems to experience whendoing you a favor. his worst faults wreak upon him far greaterpenalties than fall upon

those who associate with him, something thatcan not be said of the faults of some other types. likes melody ⶠsimple, natural music is a favorite withfat people. love songs, rollicking tunes and those full of melodyare most popular with them. an easy-to-learn, easy-to-sing song is the onea fat man chooses when he names the next selection. they like ragtime, jazz and music with a swingto it. music the world over is most popular with fat races. the world'sgreatest singers and

most of its famous musicians have been fator at least decidedly plump. goes to the cabaret ⶠthe fat person will wiggle his toes, taphis fingers, swing his fork and nod his head by the hour with a rumblingjazz orchestra. when the alimentive is combined with someother type he will also enjoy other kinds of music but the pure alimentivecares most for primal tunes and melodies. likes a girly-show ⶠa pretty-girl show makes a hit with fatwomen as well as with fat men.

drop into the "passing show" and note howmany fat people are in the audience. drop into a theater the next nightwhere a tragedy is being enacted and see how few fat ones are there. the one made sport of ⶠfat people enjoy helping out the players,if the opportunity offers. all show people know this. when one of those tricks is to be played fromthe foot-lights upon a member of the audience the girl who does itis always careful to select that circular gentleman down front. let hertry to mix up confetti or a

toy balloon with a tall skinny man and thepolice would get a hurry call! when we describe the bony type you will notehow very different he is from our friend the fat man. a movie fan ⶠ"the fat man's theater" would be a fittingname for the movie houses of the country. not that the fat man is theonly type patronizing the cinema. the movies cover in one evening somany different kinds of human interests--news, cartoons, features and comedy--thatevery type finds

upon the screen something to interest him. but if you will do what we have done--standat the doorway of the leading movie theaters of your city any eveningand keep a record of the types that enter you will find the plump areas numerous as all the others combined. easy entertainment ⶠthe reason for this is plain to all whoare acquainted with human analysis: the fat man wants everything theeasiest possible way and the movie fulfils this requirement more fullythan any other theatrical

entertainment. he can drop in when he feelslike it and there is no waiting for the show to start, for one thing. this is a decided advantage to him, for fatpeople do not like to depend upon themselves for entertainment. the babies of the race ⶠthe first stage in biological evolutionwas the stage in which the alimentary apparatus was developed. to assimilatenutriment was the first function of all life and is so still,since it is the principal requirement for self-preservation.

being the first and most elemental of ourfive physiological systems the alimentive--when it overtops the others--producesa more elemental, infantile nature. the pure alimentive hasrightly been called "the baby of the race." this accounts for many of thecharacteristics of the extremely fat person, including the fact thatit is difficult for him to amuse himself. he of all types likes most to be amused andvery simple toys and activities are sufficient to do it. loves the circus

ⶠa serious drama or "problem play" usuallybores him but he seldom misses a circus. the fat person expresses his immaturity alsoin that he likes to be petted, made over and looked after. ⶠlike the infant he demands food first.almost the only time a fat man loses his temper is when he has been deprivedof his food. the next demand on his list is sleep, another characteristicof the immature. give a fat man "three squares" a day and plentyof sleep in a comfortable bed, and he will walk off withthe prize for good humor

three hundred and sixty-five days in the to sleep he demands warm clothing in winter and steam heat whenthe wintry winds blow. fat people at the beach ⶠif it were not for the exertion requiredin getting to and from the beaches, dressing and undressing, and themomentary coldness of the water, many more alimentives would go to thebeaches in summer than do. not strenuous ⶠanything, to be popular with the alimentive,must be easy to get, easy to do, easy to get away from, easy to dropif he feels like it. anything

requiring the expenditure of great energy,even though it promises pleasure when achieved, is usually passedover by the fat people. the art of getting out of it ⶠ"let george do it" is another bit of slanginvented by this type. he seldom does anything he really hates to do.he is so likable he either induces you to let him out of it or gets somebodyto do it for him. he just naturally avoids everything that is intense,difficult or strenuous. the peaceable type

ⶠif an unpleasant situation of a personalor social nature arises--a quarrel, a misunderstanding or any kind ofdisagreement--the fat man will try to get himself out of it withouta discussion. except when they have square faces (in whichcase they are not pure alimentives), extremely fat people do notmix up in neighborhood, family, church, club or political is too much trouble, for one thing, and for another it is opposed tohis peaceable, untensed nature. avoids expensive quarrels

ⶠthe fat man has his eye on personal advantagesand promotions and he knows that quarrels are expensive, not alonein the chances they lose him, but in nerve force and peace of mind. the fat man knows instinctively that peacetimes are the most profitable times and though he is not for "peace at anyprice" so far as the country is concerned, he certainly is muchinclined that way where he is personally concerned. you will be amusedto notice how this peace-loving quality increases as one's weightincreases. the more fat any individual is the more is he inclinedto get what he wants without

hostility. the real thing ⶠthe favorite "good time" of the alimentiveis one where there are plenty of refreshments. a dinner invitationalways makes a hit with him, but beware that you do not lure a fat personinto your home and give him a tea-with-lemon wisp where he expected afull meal! always ready for food ⶠsubstantial viands can be served to himany hour of the day or night with the certainty of pleasing him. he lovesa banquet, _provided he is

not expected to make a speech_. the fat manhas a harder time than any other listening to long speeches. the fashion of trying to mix the two mostopposite extremes--food and ideas--and expecting them to go down, wasdue to our misunderstanding of the real nature of human beings. it is rapidlygoing out, as must every fashion which fails to take the human instinctsinto account. avoids sports ⶠno prizes lure a fat man into strenuousphysical exercise or violent sports. although we have witnessed numerousstate, national and

international tennis, polo, rowing, sprinting,hurdling and swimming contests, we have seen not one player whowas fat enough to be included in the pure alimentive type. the grand-stands, bleachers and touring carsat these contests contained a generous number of fat people, but theirconversation indicated that they were present more from personal interestin some contestant than in the game itself. the nearest a fat man usually comes to takingstrenuous exercise is to drive in an open car. the more easeful thatcar the better he likes it.

he avoids long walks as he would the plague,and catches a street car for a two-block trip. the personal element ⶠdue to his immaturity, the fat person giveslittle thought to anything save those things which affect him personally. the calm exterior, unruffled countenance andair of deliberation he sometimes wears, and which have occasionallypassed for "judicial" qualities, are largely the results of thefact that the alimentive refuses to get stirred up over anything thatdoes not concern him

personally. this personal element will be found to dominatethe activities, conversation and interests of the alimentive.for him to like a thing or buy a thing it must come pretty near beingsomething he can eat, wear, live in or otherwise personally enjoy. heconfines himself to the concrete and tangible. but most of all heconfines himself to things out of which he gets something for himself. reading ⶠthe fat man is no reader but when he doesread it is nearly always

something funny, simple or sentimental. innewspapers he reads the "funnies." magazine stories, if short andfull of sentiment, attract him. he seldom reads an editorial and is nota book worm. the newspaper furnishes practically all of the fat man'sreading. he seldom owns a library unless he is very rich, and then itis usually for "show." avoids book stores ⶠin making the investigations for this course,we interviewed many clerks in the bookstores of leading citiesthroughout the united states. without exception they stated thatfew extremely fat people

patronized them. "i have been in this storeseventeen years and i have never sold a book to a two hundred and fiftypounder," one dealer told us. all this is due to the fact with whichwe started this chapter--that the fat man is built around his stomach--andstomachs do not read! naturally realistic ⶠthe fat man has the child's natural innocenceand ignorance of subtle and elusive things. he has the same interestin things and people as does the child; the child's indifference tobooks, lectures, schools and everything abstract.

physical assets ⶠ"i believe i could digest nails!" exclaimeda fat friend of ours recently. this perfect nutritive system constitutesthe greatest physical superiority of the alimentive. sohighly developed is his whole stomach department that everything "agrees"with him. and everything tends to make him fat. as irvin cobb recently said: "it isn't truethat one can't have his cake and eat it, too, for the fat man eats hisand keeps it--all." physical liabilities

ⶠa tendency to over-eat results naturallyfrom the highly developed eating and digesting system of this type butthis in turn overtaxes all the vital organs, as stated before. also,the fat man's aversion to exercise reduces his physical efficiency. the pure alimentive and the alimentively-inclinedshould learn their normal weight and then keep within it if theydesire long lives. social assets ⶠsweetness of disposition is one of themost valuable of all human characteristics. fat people possess it moreoften and more unchangingly

than any other type. other social assets ofthis type are amenableness, affability, hospitality and approachableness. social liabilities ⶠgaining his ends by flattery, cajolery,and various more or less innocent little deceptions are the only socialhandicaps of this type. emotional assets ⶠhis unfailing optimism is the most markedemotional quality of this type. nothing can be so dark that the fatperson doesn't find a silver edge somewhere. so in disaster we always sendfor our fat friends. in

the presence of an amply-proportioned individualeverything looks brighter. hope springs eternal in human breastsbut the springs are stronger in the plump folks than in the restof us. money spending is also a marked feature ofthe fat man. his emotions are out-going, never "in-growing." a stingy fatman is unknown. emotional liabilities ⶠa tendency to become spoiled, to pout,and to take out his resentments in babyish ways are the emotional weaknessesof this type. these, as you will note, are the natural reactions of childhood,from which he never

fully emerges. business assets ⶠthe ability to make people like him isthe greatest business and professional asset of this type, and one everyother type might well emulate. one average-minded fat man near thedoor of a business establishment will make more customers ina month by his geniality, joviality and sociableness than a dozen brilliantthinkers will in a year. every business that deals directly withthe public should have at least one fat person in it.

business liabilities ⶠa habit of evading responsibility and of"getting out from under" constitutes the inclination most harmful tothe business or professional ambitions of this type. again it is the childin him trying to escape the task set for it and at the same time toavoid punishment. domestic strength ⶠlove of home is a distinguishing domestictrait of all fat people. the fat man's provision for his family is usuallyas complete as his circumstances will permit and he often stretchesit a point.

as parents fat men and women are almost tooeasy-going for their own future happiness, for they "spoil" their children.but they are more loved by their children than any other type.being so nearly children themselves they make equals of their children,enter into their games and live their lives with them. domestic weakness ⶠdependence on others, the tendency of allowingone's self to be supported by brothers or sisters or wife,is the chief domestic weakness of fat people. they should begin early inlife to depend upon

themselves and make it a practice to carrytheir share of family responsibilities. should aim at ⶠdeveloping more of his mental powers witha view to using his head to lessen the manual work he so dislikes, andcultivating an interest in the more mature side of the world in whichhe lives should be two of the aims of all extremely fat people. should avoid ⶠ"letting down," soft snaps and temptationsto evade responsibility

should be avoided by the fat. elbert hubbardsaid, "blessed is the man who is not looking for a soft snap, for heis the only one who shall find it." this explains why the fat man, unlessbrainy, seldom lands one. strongest points ⶠoptimism, hospitality and harmony are thestrongest points in the fat man's nature. upon them many a man has builta successful life. without them no individual of any type can hope tobe happy. his popularity and all-around compatibilitygive the fat man advantages

over other types which fairly compensate forthe weak cogs in his machinery. weakest points ⶠself-indulgence of all kinds, over-eating,over-sleeping, under-exercising and the evasion of responsibilitiesare the weakest points of this type. despite his many strongpoints his life is often wrecked on these rocks. he so constantly tendsto taking the easy way out. day by day he gives up chances for ultimatesuccess for the baubles of immediate ease.

he is the most likable of all the types buthis indolence sometimes strains even the love of his family to thebreaking point. how to deal with this type socially ⶠfeed him, give him comfortable chairs--thelargest you have--and don't drag him into long discussions of any kind.this is the recipe for winning the fat man when you meet him socially. and whatever you do, don't tell him your troubles!the fat man hates trouble, smothers his own, and you only makehim ill at ease when you regale him with yours.

don't walk him any more than is absolutelynecessary. let him go home early if he starts. he enjoys his sleep anddoesn't like to have it interfered with. ⶠmake your conversation deal with concretepersonal things and events. stay away from highbrow subjects. the bestplaces to eat and the best shows of the week are safe subjects to introducewhen with very fat people. how to deal with this type in business ⶠdon't give him hard manual tasks. if youwant this kind of work done

get some one other than an extremely fat manto do it. if you hire a fat man blame yourself for the result. give your fat employee a chance to deal withpeople in a not-too-serious way, but hold him strictly to the keepingof his records, reports and working hours. if this fat person is a dealer,a merchant or a tradesman keep him to his word. start out by lettinghim know you expect the delivery of just what he promises. don't lethim "jolly" you into relinquishing what is rightfully yours. andkeep in mind always that the fat person is usually good at heart.

_remember, the chief distinguishing marksof the alimentive in the order of their importance are rounded outlines,immature features and dimpled hands. a person who has these is largely ofthe alimentive type, no matter what other types may be included inhis makeup._ [illustration: 3 thoracic the "thriller"] chapter ii the thoracic type "the thriller" individuals in whom the circulatory system(heart, arteries and blood

vessels) and the respiratory system (lungs,nose and chest) are more highly developed than any other systems, havebeen named the thoracics. ⶠthis name comes from the fact that theheart and lungs (which constitute the most important organs of thesetwo closely-allied systems) are housed in the thorax--that littleroom made by your ribs for the protection of these vital organs. physical resilience ⶠa general elasticity of structure, a suggestionof sinews and physical resilience characterizes this type.

the florid-faced, high-chested individual ⶠwhat is known as a "red face," when accompaniedby a high chest, always signifies large thoracic tendencies.the high color which in an adult comes and goes is a sure indicationof a well developed circulatory system, since high color is causedby the rapid pumping of blood to the tiny blood vessels of the face. people with little blood, weak hearts or deficientcirculation are not florid and must be much overheated or excitedto show vivid color in their cheeks.

betray their feelings ⶠon the other hand, the slightest displeasure,enjoyment, surprise or exertion brings the blood rushing to the faceand neck of him who has a large, well-developed blood-system. how manytimes you have heard such a one say: "i am so embarrassed! i flush atevery little thing! how i envy the rest of you who come in from a long walklooking so cool!" the man of great chest expansion ⶠthe largest part of this man's body isaround the chest. (see chart 3) his chest is high for the reason that he haslarger lungs than the

average. advantages of a high chest ⶠthe man of unusual chest-expansion hasone great physical asset. the person who breathes deeply has a decided advantageover the man who breathes deficiently. the lungs form the bellowsor air-supply for the body's engine, the heart, and with a deficientsupply of air the heart does deficient work. efficient breathing iseasy only to the man of large lungs, and only the high chested havelarge lungs. long-waisted people

ⶠa long waist is another thoracic sign,for it is a natural result of the extra house-room required by the largelungs and heart. it is easily detected in both men and women. (see chart3) if you are a close observer you have noticedthat some people appear to have a waist line much lower than others;that the belt line dividing the upper part of the body from the loweris proportionately much nearer the floor in some than in others of the sameheight. passing of the "wasp waist" ⶠthe "straight-up-and-down" lines of today'swoman and the slimpsy

shoulder-to-heel garments she wears have obliteratedher waistline, but you will recall how differently the old "waspwaist" fashions of a score of years ago betrayed the secrets of the shortand long waist. the eighteen-inch belt, of which we were sofalsely proud in 1900, told unmistakable facts about milady's thoracicdevelopment. belts vs. suspenders ⶠas the tell-tale belt disappeared fromwoman's wardrobe it appeared in man's, and now betrays the location of hiswaist with an exactness of which the old-fashioned suspenders were neverguilty.

to test yourself ⶠif you are a man and have difficulty ingetting ready-made coats long enough for you this is certain proof thatyou have decided thoracic tendencies. if you are a woman who has toforego many a pretty gown because it is not long enough in the waist,the same is true of you. in women this long waist and high chest givethe appearance of small hips and of shoulders a little broader thanthe average; in men it gives that straight, soldier-like bearing whichmakes this type of man admired and gazed after as he strides down the street.

the pure thoracic head ⶠa high head is a significant characteristicof the typical thoracic. (see chart 4) the anglo-saxons tend to havethis head and, more than any other races, exhibit thoracic qualities asracial characteristics. this is considered the handsomest head known.certainly it lends the appearance of nobility and intelligence. itis not wide, looked at from the front or back, but inclines to be slightlynarrower for its height than the alimentive head. the kite-shaped face

ⶠa face widest through the cheek bones andtapering slightly up the sides of the forehead and downward to thejaw bones is the face of the pure thoracic. (see chart 4) this must notbe mistaken for the pointed chin nor the pointed head, but is merely asloping of the face upward and downward from the cheek bones as a resultof the unusual width of the nose section. (see chart 4) his well-developed nose ⶠthe nose section is also high and widebecause the typical thoracic has a nose that is well developed. this isshown not only by its length

but by its high bridge. [illustration: 4 typical thoracic face] the cause for the width and length of thissection is obvious. the nose constitutes the entrance and exit departmentsof the breathing system. large lung capacity necessitates alarge chamber for the intake and expulsion of air. signs of good lungs ⶠwhenever you see a man whose face is widethrough the cheek bones--with a long, high-bridged open-nostrillednose--you see a man of

good lung capacity and of quick physical energy.when you see any one with pinched nostrils, a face that is narrowthrough the cheek bones and a low or "sway-back" nose, you see a man whoselung capacity is deficient. such a person invariably expendshis physical energy more slowly. freckles, being due to the same causes asred hair and high color, are further indications of thoracic tendencies,though you may belong to this type with or without them. the typical thoracic hand

ⶠthe pointed hand is the hand of the purethoracic. (see chart 4) note the extreme length of the second finger andthe pointed effect of this hand when all the fingers are laid together.any person with a pointed hand such as this has good thoracic developmentwhether it occupies first place in his makeup or not. the fingers of the thoracic are also inclinedto be more thin-skinned than those of other types. one may be predominantly thoracic withoutthese elements but they are indications of the extreme thoracic type.naturally the hand of the

extreme thoracic is more pink than the average. the beautiful foot ⶠthe thoracic tends to have more narrow,high-arched feet than other types. as a result this type makes the majorityof the beautifully shod. the man of energetic movements ⶠa hair-trigger nimbleness goes with thistype. he is always "poised ready to strike." all thoracics use their hands, arms, wrists,limbs and feet alertly and energetically. they open doors, handle implementsand all kinds of hand

instruments with little blundering. also theirmovements are more graceful than those of other types. the thoracic walk ⶠ"the springy step" must have been inventedto describe the walk of the thoracic. no matter how hurried, his walkhas more grace than the walk of other types. he does not stumble; and itis seldom that a thoracic steps on the train of his partner's gown. the graceful sitter ⶠthe way you sit tells a great deal aboutyour nature. one of the first

secrets it betrays is whether you are by naturegraceful or ungainly. the person who sits gracefully, who seemsto drape himself becomingly upon a chair and to arise from it with easeis usually a thoracic. their excess of energy sometimes gives themthe appearance of "fidgeting," but it is an easy, graceful fidgetand not as disturbing as that of other types. keen eye and ear senses ⶠquick eyes and keen ears are characteristicof the thoracics. the millions of stimuli--the sounds, sights andsmells impinging every

waking moment upon the human consciousness--affecthim more quickly and more intensely than any other type. the acutenessof all our senses depends, to a far greater extent than we havehitherto supposed, upon proper heart and lung action. take long, deep breaths for five minutes inthe open air while walking rapidly enough to make your heart pound, andsee how much keener your senses are at the end of that time. the thoracic is chronically in this conditionbecause his heart and lungs are going at top speed habitually andnaturally all his life.

susceptible to heat ⶠbecause bodily temperature varies accordingto the amount of blood and the rapidity of its circulation, this typeis always warmer than others. he is extremely susceptible to heat, sufferskeenly in warm rooms or warm weather and wears fewer wraps in winter.the majority of bathers at the beaches in summer are largely of thistype. the high-strung ⶠnerves as taut as a violin string--dueto his acute physical senses and his thin, sensitive skin--plus his instantaneousquickness make the

thoracic what is known as "high-strung." the most temperamental ⶠbecause he is keyed to high c by nature,the thoracic has more of that quality called temperament than any othertype. the wag who said that "temperament was mostlytemper" might have reversed it and still have been right. fortemper is largely a matter of temperament. since the thoracics have more"temperament" it follows naturally that they have more temper, or ratherthat they show it oftener, just as they show their delightfulqualities oftener.

a continuous performance ⶠthis type, consciously and unconsciously,is a "continuous performance." he is showing you somethingof himself every moment and if you are interested in human nature, as yourreading of this book suggests, you are going to find him a fascinatingsubject. he is expressing his feelings with more or lessabandon all the time and he is likely to express as many as a dozen differentones in as many moments. the quick temper ⶠ"flying off the handle," and "going upin the air" are phrases

originally inspired by our dear, delightfulfriends, the thoracics. other types do these more or less temperamentalthings but they do not do them as frequently nor on as short noticeas this type. the human firefly ⶠa fiery nature is part and parcel of thethoracic's makeup. but did you ever see a fiery-natured man who didn'thave lots of warm friends! it is the grouch--in whom the fire startsslowly and smoulders indefinitely--that nobody likes. but the manwho flares up, flames for a moment and is calm the next never lacks forcompanions or devotees.

the red-haired ⶠone may belong to the thoracic type whetherhis hair is blonde or brunette or any of the shades between, butit is an interesting fact that most of the red-haired are largely ofthis type. "he didn't have red hair for nothing" is a famous phrase thathas been applied to the red-haired, quick-tempered thoracic for generations. you will be interested to note that this highcolor and high chest are distinctly noticeable in most of the red-hairedpeople you know--certain proof that they approximate this type.

as you walk down the street tomorrow lookat the people ahead of you and when you find a "red-head" notice how muchmore red his neck is than the necks of the people walking beside him.this flushed skin almost always accompanies red hair, showing thatmost red-haired people belong to this type. the "flash in the pan" ⶠthe red-haired man's temper usually expendsitself instantly. his red-hot fieriness is over in a moment. butfor every enemy he has two friends--friends who like his flame, eventhough in constant danger from

it themselves. whereas the alimentive avoids you if he disagreeswith you, the thoracic likes to tell you in a few hot words justwhat he thinks of you. but the chances are that he will be so completelyover it by lunch time that he will invite you out with him. desire for approbation ⶠto be admired and a wee bit envied aredesires dear to the heart of this type. everybody, to a greater or lesserdegree, desires these things, but to no other type do they meanso much as to this one. we

know this because no other type, in any suchnumbers, takes the trouble or makes the sacrifices necessary to bringthem about. acts indicate desires ⶠthe ego of every individual craves approvalbut the majority of the other types craves something else more--theparticular something in each case depending upon the type to which theindividual belongs. you can always tell what any individual wantsmost by what he does. the man who _thinks_ he wants a thing or wisheshe wanted it talks about getting it, envies those who have it and _plans_to start doing

something about it. but the man who reallywants a thing goes after it, sacrifices his leisure, his pleasures andsometimes love itself--and gets it. shines in public life ⶠthe lime-light appeals more to this typethan to others because it goes further toward gratifying his desirefor approbation. so while other men and women are dreaming of fame thethoracic practises, ploughs and pleads his way to it. the personal adulation of friends and of themultitude is the breath of

life to him. extremes of this type considerno self-denial too great a price to pay for it. many on the stage ⶠthe stage in all its forms is as naturala field to the thoracic as salesmanship is to the alimentive. the pleasof fond papas and fearsome mamas are usually ineffective with this typeof boy or girl when he sets his heart on a career before the foot-lightsor in the movies. whether they achieve it or not will dependon other, and chiefly mental, traits in each individual's makeup, but theyearning for it in some form

is always there. so the managers' waitingrooms are always crowded with people of this type. it is this intensityof desire which has goaded and inspired most stage artists on to successin their chosen fields. "put yourself in his place" ⶠto be able to put one's self in the roleof another, to feel as he feels; to be so keenly sensitive to his situationand psychology that one almost becomes that person for the timebeing, is the heart and soul of acting. the thoracic has this sensitiveness naturally.after long study and

acquaintance you may be able to put yourselfin the place of a few friends. the thoracic does this instantlyand automatically. tendency, not toil, makes fame ⶠthose who have succeeded to fame in anygiven line are wont to proclaim, "hard work is the secret of success,"and to take great credit unto themselves for the labor they have expendedon their own. it is true of course that all success entailshard work. but the man or woman sufficiently gifted to rise to the heightsgets from that gift such a strong inward urge towards its expressionthat what he does in

that direction is not work to him. the longhours, concentration and study devoted to it are more pleasurable thanpainful to him. he chooses such activities voluntarily. nature the real artist ⶠnothing can rightly be called work whichone does out of sheer preference. work never made an actress andwork never made a singer where innate talent for these arts was lacking.nature, the true maker of every famous name, bestows ninety per centand man, if he hustles, can provide the other very necessary ten.but his sense of humor if not

his sense of justice should be sufficientto prevent his trying to rob the almighty of his due. success for all ⶠevery individual who is not feeble-mindedcan be a success at something in this big world. every normal-mindedindividual is able to create, invent, improve, organize, build ormarket some of the myriads of things the world is crying for. but hewill succeed at only those things in which his physiological and psychologicalmechanisms perform their functions easily and naturally.

why we work ⶠman is, by inclination, very little ofa worker. he is, first, a wanter--a bundle of instincts; second, a feeler--abundle of emotions; last and least, he is a thinker. what realwork he does is done not because he likes it but because it servesone of these first two bundles of instincts. when the desire for leisure is stronger thanthe other urges, leisure wins. but in all ambitious men and women thedesire for other things outweighs the leisure-urge.

ambition and type ⶠnow what is it that causes some to haveambition and others to lack it? your ambitions take the form determined byyour predominating physiological system. for instance, in everygreat singer the thoracic has been present either as the first or secondelement. the effect of the physical upon our talentsis no more marked anywhere than here. for it is his unusual lung power,his high chest, the sounding boards in his nose section and hissuperior vocal cords that

make the real foundation of every singer'sfame. these physiological conditions are found in extreme degree onlyin persons of thoracic tendencies. it was the great lung-power of caruso thatmade him a great singer. it was his remarkable heart-power that broughthim through an illness in february, 1921, when every newspaper in theworld carried on its front page the positive statement that he couldnot live another day. that he lived for six months afterward was due chieflyto his remarkable heart. the nature resulting from a large heart andlarge lungs is one

distinctly different from all others--in short,the thoracic nature. the best dressed ⶠthe best dressed man and the best dressedwoman in your town belong predominantly to this type. this is no accident.the thoracics, being possessed of acute eye senses, are more sensitiveto color and line than any other type. these are the foundationsof "style" and artistic grooming. clothes can unmake the man ⶠbeing desirous of the approval of othersand realizing that though

clothes do not make the man they can unmakehim, this type looks to his laurels on this point. because clothes determine the first impressionswe make upon strangers and because that impression is difficult tochange, clothes are of vast importance in this maze of human relationships. the thoracic is more sensitive to the attitudeof others because their attitude is more vital to his self-expression.he senses from childhood the bearing that clothes have for or againsthim in the opinion of others and how they can aid him to expresshis personality.

the glass of fashion ⶠthe thoracic therefore often becomes "theglass of fashion and the mold of form." his consciousness of himselfis so keen that, even when alone, he prefers those things in dress whichare at once fine, fancy and fashionable. some types are indifferent to clothes, someignorant of clothes and some defiant in their clothes but the thoracicalways has a keen sense of fitness in the matter of apparel. distinction in dress

ⶠthe distinctive dresser is one who essaysthe extremely fashionable, the "last moment" touch. he is always a stepor two ahead of the times. his ties, handbags, handkerchiefs and stickpins are "up to the minute." such a man or woman invariably has a largethoracic development and is well repaid by the public for his pains. dress the universal language ⶠthe public looks more eagerly than we supposeto changes in styles and fads. it gives, in spite of itself, instantaneousadmiration of a sort to those who follow the dictates of fashion.this being one of the

quickest roads to adulation, it is often utilizedby this type. the newest in hairdressing ⶠthe latest thing in coiffures is alwaysknown by the thoracic woman. and because she is, more often than any othertype, a beautiful woman she can wear her hair in almost any styleand find it becoming. so when puffs were the thing this type ofwoman not only wore puffs but the most extreme and numerous puffs. whenthe "sticking-to-the-face" style was in vogue she bought much bandolineand essayed the sleekest and shiniest head of all. when the ear-bunraged she changed those same

paper-like curls over night into veritableyoung sofa cushions. always on "dress parade" ⶠwith intent to keep the spotlight on himselfthe thoracic is always on dress parade. he is vividly aware of himself;he knows what kind of picture he is making. he is seldom "self-conscious,"in the sense of being timid. when he does happen to be timidhe suffers, by reason of his greater desire for approval, more acutelythan any other type. affectability his keynote ⶠinstantaneous reaction to stimuli--withall the reflex actions

resulting therefrom--constitutes the keynoteof this type. this makes an individual who is physiologically and psychologicallyaffectable. because life is full of all kinds of stimuli,acting during every waking moment upon every sense in the organism, anyperson who is high strung finds himself in the midst of what might becalled "nerve-bedlam." gets the most out of everything ⶠbecause of this same highly sensitizedmakeup the thoracic gets more sensations out of every incident than therest of us do. he experiences more joy in the space of a lifetime but alsomore disappointment.

the human violin ⶠfor the same reason that the violin vibratesto a greater number of sounds than the organ, the thoracic is a morevibrant individual than others. he is impelled to an expressivenessof voice, manner and action that often looks like pretence to less impulsivepeople. in other types it would be, but to the thoracic it is sonatural and normal that he is often much surprised to hear that he has thereputation of being "affected." a reputation for flightiness

ⶠthis lightning-like liveliness of face,body and voice, his quick replies and instantaneous reactions to everythingalso cause him to be called "flighty." the quick thinker ⶠwe are prone to judge every one by ourselves.people whose mental or physical senses are less "keyed-up," lesssensitive, call the thoracic "rattle-brained." usually such a man's brain is not rattledat all; it is working, as all brains do in response to the messages reachingit, via the telegraph

wires of the five senses. in the thoracic these wires happen to be moretaut than in the other types. he gets sensations from sights, sounds,tastes, touches and smells much more quickly than the rest ofus do. these messages are sent to the brain more rapidly and, since sensationis responsible for much of our thinking, this man's brain thinks alittle more speedily than it does not necessarily think any better.often it does need slowing down. but compared to the thought-power ofsome of the other types the thoracic's speed makes up for much of hiscarelessness. he makes more

mistakes in judgment than other types butcan "right-about-face" so quickly he usually remedies them while othertypes are still trying to decide when to start. to hold himself back is the hardest lessonfor this type to learn. his changeability ⶠthis tendency to let himself go bringsthe thoracic a great deal of unhappiness and failure. he plunges so quicklythat he often fails to take into consideration the various elementsof the situation. his physical senses tell him a thing shouldbe done and rush him

headlong into actions that he knows are ill-advisedthe moment he has time to think them over. in turning aroundand righting his mistakes he often hears himself called "changeable" and"vacillating." his "batting average" ⶠin this, as in other things, we have atendency toward smugness, shortsightedness and egotism. the man whomakes but one mistake a year because he makes but two decisions is wrongfifty per cent of the time. yet he self-satisfiedly considers himselfsuperior to the thoracic because he has caught the latter in six "poordeals within six months."

at the rate the average thoracic acts thiswould be about one mistake in a thousand--a much "better batting average"than the other man's. but because the confidence of others in ourstability is of prime importance to us all, this type or any oneinclined to definite thoracic tendencies should take pains to prevent thisimpression from settling into the minds of his friends. should get onto the highway ⶠthe greatest reason for striving towardstability in action and more slowness in decision, however, is for hisown future's sake. the man who

is constantly making decisions and being compelledto alter them gets nowhere. he may have the best engine and thefinest car in the world but if he runs first down this by-path, and thenthat, he will make little progress on the main highway. should have an aim ⶠan aim, a definite goal is essential tothe progress of any individual. it should be made with care andin keeping with one's personality, talents, training, education,environment and experience, and having been made should be adhered towith the determination which

does not permit little things to interferewith it. eliminating non-essentials ⶠthe big problem of individual success isthe problem of eliminating non-essentials--of "hewing to the line, lettingthe chips fall where they may." most of the things that steal yourtime, strength, money and energy are nothing but chips. if you pay toomuch attention to them you will never hew out anything worth while. no vain regrets ⶠif you are a thoracic don't regret thefact that you are not a

one-decision-a-year man, but try to make fewerand better decisions. your quickness, if called into counsel, willenable you to see from what instincts your mistakes habitually arise andthe direction in which most of them have pointed. and you will see thiswith so much greater dispatch than the average person that youwill lose little time. you should begin today to analyze your mostcommon errors in judgment that you may guard against their recurrence. always slightly thrilled ⶠeven when apparently composed the thoracicis always a wee bit

thrilled. everything he sees, hears, touches,tastes or smells gives him such keen sensations that he lives momentarilyin some kind of adventure. he languishes in an unchanging environmentand finds monotony almost unbearable. lights and shadows ⶠ"never two minutes the same" fitly describesthis type. he passes rapidly from one vivid sensation to anotherand expresses each one so completely that he is soon ready for the next.he has fewer complexes

than any other type because he does not inhibitas much. the uncorked bottle ⶠthe "lid" is always off of the thoracic.this being the case he suffers little from "mental congestion" thoughhe sometimes pays a high price for his self-expression. everybody is interesting ⶠmost of us are much more interesting thanthe world suspects. but the world is not made up of mind readers. we keepour most interesting thoughts and the most interesting side ofourselves hidden away. even

your dearest friends are seldom given a peepinto the actual you. and this despite the fact that we all recognizethis as a deficiency in others. we bottle up ourselves and defy the world'scork-screws--all save the thoracic. he allows his associates to seemuch of what is passing in his mind all the time. because we are all interestedin the real individual and not in masks this type usually is muchsought after. not secretive ⶠthe thoracic does not by preference coverup; he does not by

preference secrete; he does not, except whennecessary, keep his plans and ways dark. he is likely to tell not onlyhis family but his newest acquaintances just what he is planning todo and how he expects to do the naturally secretive person who vaguelyrefers to "a certain party" when he has occasion to speak of another isthe exact opposite of this type. his "human interest" ⶠwe are all interested in the little comingsand goings of our friends. upon this fact every magazine andnewspaper builds its "human

interest" stories. we may be indifferent towhat the president of the united states is doing about internationalrelations but what he had for breakfast is mighty interesting. few peopleread inaugural addresses, significant though they often are to the worldand to the reader himself. but if the president would writeten volumes on "just how i spend my sundays," it would be a "best seller." naturally confidential ⶠpersonal experiences, personal secretsand personal preferences are subjects we are all interested in. these arethe very things with which

the thoracic regales his friends and aboutwhich he is more frank and outspoken than any other type. he makes manyfriends by his obvious openness and his capacity for seeing the interestingdetails which others overlook. charming conversationalist ⶠcolorful, vivid words and phrases comeeasily to the tongue of this type for he sees the unusual, the fascinating,in everything. since any one can make a thing interesting to othersif he is really interested in it himself, the thoracic makes others seeand feel what he describes.

he is therefore known as the most charmingconversationalist. beautiful voice ⶠthe most beautiful voices belong to peoplewho are largely of this type. this is due, as we have said before,to physiological causes. the high chest, sensitive vocal cords, capacioussounding boards in the nose and roof of the mouth all tend to give thevoice of the thoracic many nuances and accents never found in other types. his pleasing voice plus the vividness of hisexpressions and his lack of reticence in giving the intimate and interestingdetails are other

traits which help to make the thoracic a livelycompanion. the lure of spontaneity ⶠthe most beloved people in the world arethe spontaneous. we lead such drab lives ourselves and keep back so much,we like to see a little niagara of human emotion occasionally. thethoracic feels everything keenly. life's experiences make vivid recordson the sensitive plate of his mind. he puts them on the victrola thatis himself and proceeds to run them off for your entertainment. sometimes a "bubbler"

ⶠ"a constant stream of talk" must have beenfirst said in describing this type. for while others are carefullyguarding their real feelings and thoughts the thoracic goes merrily onrelieving himself of his. more sedate and somber types call the thoracics"bubblers" or "spouters" just for this reason. the incessant talker ⶠ"that person's talk gets on my nerves,"is a remark often made by one of the staid, stiff types concerning the seldomsilent, extremely florid individual. so natural is this to the thoracicthat he is entirely

unconscious of the wearing effect he has onother people. a sense of humor ⶠseeing the funny side of everything isa capacity which comes more naturally to this type than to others. thisis due to the psychological fact that nothing is truly humorous save whatis slightly "out of plumb." real humor lies in detecting and describingthat intangible quirk. no type has the sensitiveness essential to thisin any such degree as the thoracic. individuals of other types sometimespossess a keen sense of

humor. this trait is not confined to the thoracic.but it is a significant fact that almost every humoristof note has had this type as the first or second element in his makeup. the human fireworks ⶠ"he is a skyrocket," or "she is a firefly,"are phrases often used to describe that vivacious individual whose adeptnessat repartee puts the rest of the crowd in the background. thesepeople are always largely or purely thoracic. they never belong predominatelyto the fourth type. the next time you find such a person notehow his eyes flash, how his

color comes and goes and the many indescribablegradations of voice which make him the center of things. "he is always shooting sparks," said a manrecently in describing a florid, high-chested friend. never dull company ⶠhis "line" may not interest you but thethoracic himself is usually interesting. he is an actual curiosity tothe quiet, inexpressive people who never can fathom how he manages to talkso frankly and so fast. such a person is seldom dull. he is everythingfrom a condiment to a

cocktail and has the same effect on the averagegroup of more or less drab personalities. lives in the heights and depths ⶠ"glad one moment and sad the next" is theway the ticker would read if it could make a record of the inner feelingsof the average thoracic. these feelings often come and go without hishaving the least notion of what causes them. ordinarily these unaccountablemoods are due to sensations reaching his subconscious mind,of which no cognizance is taken by his conscious processes.

called "intuitive" ⶠthis ability to "get" things, to respondquickly with his physical reactions while devoting his mental ones tosomething else, has obtained for this type the reputation of possessingmore "intuition" than others. source of "hunches" ⶠthat there is no such thing as intuitionin the old sense of getting a "hunch" from the outside is now agreed bypsychologists. the thing we have called intuition, they maintain, is notdue to irregular or supernatural causes but to our own normalnatural mental processes.

the impression that he gets this knowledgeor suspicion from the outside is due, the scientists say, to the fact thathis thinking has proceeded at such lightning-like speed that he was unableto watch the wheels go round. the only thing of which he is consciousis the final result or sum at the bottom of the column called his"hunch." he is not aware of the addition and subtraction which his mindwent through to get it for easily excited ⶠ"off like a shot" is a term often appliedto the thoracic. he is the most easily excited of all types but alsothe most easily calmed. he

recovers from every mood more quickly andmore completely than other types. under the influence of emotion he oftendoes things for which he is sorry immediately afterward. on the spur of the moment ⶠthis type usually does a thing quicklyor not at all. he is a gun that is always cocked. so he hits a great manythings in the course of a lifetime and leads the most exciting existenceof any type. being able to get thrills out of the most commonplaceevent because of seeing elements in it which others overlook, he findsin everyday life more

novelty than others ever see. the adventurers ⶠromance and adventure always interest thistype. he lives for thrills and novel reactions and usually spares nopains or money to get them. a very slangy but very expressive term usedfrequently by these people is, "i got a real kick out of that." this craving for adventure, suspense and zestoften lures this type into speculation, gambling and various games ofchance. the danger in flying, deep-sea diving, auto-racing and similar fieldshas a strong appeal for

this type--so strong that practically everyman or woman who follows these professions is of this type. tires of sameness ⶠthe thoracic soon tires of the same suit,the same gown, the same house, the same town and even the same girl.he wrings the utmost out of each experience so quickly and so completelythat he is forever on the lookout for new worlds to conquer. past experiencesare to him as so many lemons out of which he has taken allthe juice. he anticipates those of the future as so many more to beutilized in the same way.

likes responsive people ⶠwe all like answers. we want to be assuredthat what we have said or done has registered. the thoracic is alwayssaying or doing something and can't understand why other people areso unresponsive. he is as responsive as a radio wire. everything hitsthe mark with him and he lets you know it. so, naturally, he enjoysthe same from others and considers those less expressive than himselfstiff, formal or dull. the kind of person the thoracic likes bestis one sufficiently like himself to nod and smile and show that hefully understands but who will

not interrupt his stream of talk. people he dislikes ⶠthe stolid, indifferent or cold are peoplethe thoracic comes very near disliking. their evident self-complacencyand immobility are things he does not understand at all and with whichhe has little patience. such people seem to him to be cold, unfeeling,almost dead. so he steers clear of them. it was surely a thoracic whofirst called these people "sticks." but the reason for their actinglike sticks will be apparent in another chapter.

his pet aversions ⶠwhereas the alimentive avoids people hedoes not care for, the thoracic is inclined to betray his aversions.he occasionally delights to put people he dislikes at a disadvantageby his wit or satire. the stony individual who walks through life likean ionian pillar is a complete mystery to the thoracic; and thepillar returns the compliment. we do not like anything we do not understandand we seldom understand anything that differs decidedly from ourselves. thus we distrust and dislike foreigners, andto a greater or lesser

extent other families, people from other sectionsof the country, etc. the easterner and westerner have a naturaldistrust of each other; and the civil war is not the only reason for theincompatibility of southerners and northerners. so it is with individuals. those who differtoo widely in type never understand each other. they have too littleof the chief thing that builds friendships--emotions in common. the forgiving man ⶠif you have once been a real friend ofa thoracic and a quarrel comes

between you, he may be ever so bitter andbiting in the moment of his anger but in most cases he will forgive youeventually. really forgets disagreements ⶠit is not as easy for other types to forgive;they often refrain from attempting a reconciliation. but the thoracic'sforgiveness is not only spontaneous but genuine. the alimentive bears no grudges because itis too much trouble. the thoracic finds it hard to maintain a grudgebecause he gets over it just as he gets over everything else. his angeroozes away or he wakes up

some fine morning and finds, like the boyrecovering from the chickenpox, that he "simply hasn't it anymore." diseases he is most susceptible to ⶠacute diseases are the ones chiefly affectingthis type. everything in his organism tends to suddenness and not tosameness. just as he is inclined to get into and outof psychological experiences quickly, so he is inclined to sudden illnessesand to sudden recuperations. a thoracic seldom has any kindof chronic ailment. if he acquires a superabundance of avoirdupois heis in danger of apoplexy.

the combination of extreme thoracic and extremealimentive tendencies is the cause of this disease. likes fancy foods ⶠvariety and novelty in food are much enjoyedby this type. the alimentive likes lots of rich food but heis not so desirous of varieties or freak dishes. but the thoracicspecializes in them. you can not mention any kind of strange newdish whose investigation won't appeal to some one in the crowd, andthat person is always somewhat thoracic. it gives him another promiseof "newness."

foreign dishes of all kinds depend for theirintroduction into this country almost entirely upon these floridpatrons. according to the statements of restauranteurs this type says,"i will try anything once." many-course dinners, if the food is good,are especially popular with "the trimmings" at dinner ⶠout-of-the-ordinary surroundings in whichto dine are always welcome to this type. the hangings, pictures, andfurniture mean much to him. most people like music at meals but to thethoracic it is almost indispensable. he is so alive in every nerve,so keyed-up and has such

intense capacity for enjoyment of many thingssimultaneously that he demands more than other types. an attentivewaiter who ministers to every movement and anticipates every wishis also a favorite with the thoracic when out for dinner. sensitive to his surroundings ⶠcolorful surroundings are more necessaryto the thoracic than to other types. the ever-changing fashions in housedecorations are welcome innovations to him. he soon grows tired ofa thing regardless of how much he liked it to begin with.

take notice amongst your friends and you willsee that the girl who changes the furniture all around every fewweeks is invariably of this type. "it makes me feel that i have changedmy location and takes the place of a trip," explained one girl not longago. wants "something different" ⶠthe exact color of hangings, wall-paper,interior decorations and accessories are matters of vital import tothis type. whereas the alimentives demand comfort, the thoracicsask for "something different," something that catches and holds the eye--thatmakes an instantaneous

impression upon the onlooker and gives himone more thing by which to remember the personality of the one who livesthere. this type considers his room and home as apart of himself and takes the pains with them which he bestows upon hisclothes. when he is rich ⶠwealth to the thoracic means unlimitedopportunity for achieving the unusual in everything. his tastes are moreextravagant than those of other types. uncommon works of art are usuallyfound in the homes of this type. the most extraordinary things fromthe most extraordinary

places are especial preferences with him. he carries out his desire for attention hereas in everything else and what he buys will serve that end directlyor indirectly. fashion and "flare" ⶠ"flare" aptly describes the quality whichthe pure thoracic desires in all that touches him and his must have verve and "go" and distinctiveness. it must be "the latest"and "the thing." he is the last type of all to submit to wearinglast year's suit, singing last year's songs, or driving in alast year's model.

likes dash ⶠthe thoracic wants everything he wears,drives, lives in or owns to "get across," to make an impression. the fatman loves comfort above all else, but the florid man loves distinction. he does not demand such easy-to-wear garmentsas the fat man. on the contrary, he will undergo extreme discomfortif it gives him a distinctive appearance. he wants his houseto be elegant, the grounds "different," the view unusual. has color sense

ⶠwhereas the fat man when furnishing a homedevotes his attention to soft beds, steam heat and plenty of cushioneddivans, the thoracic thinks of the chandeliers, the unusual chairs,the pretty front doorstep, the landscape gardening and thecolor schemes. when he is in moderate circumstances ⶠwhen only well to do this type will befound to have carried out furnishings and decorations with the tasteworthy of much larger purses. when merely well to do he wears the very bestclothes he can possibly afford, and often a good deal better. thistype does not purpose to be

outwitted by life. he tries always to putup a good showing. when he is poor ⶠthe thoracic is seldom poor. he has somuch personality, ginger and go of the sort that is required in the worldof today that he usually has a good position. he may not like the position.but in spite of the fact that he finds it harder to tolerate disagreeablethings than any other type, he will endure it for he knows thatthe rewards he is after can not be had by the down-and-outer. the natural and normal vanity of the thoracicstands him in hand here

more than in almost any other place in life. the world entertained by them ⶠbehind every row of foot-lights you willfind more people of this type than any other. the alimentive manages theworld but the thoracic entertains it. he comprises more of the dancers, actors,operatic stars and general entertainers than any other two types everything save acrobatics and oratory he holds the platformlaurels. as already pointed out, his adaptability,spontaneity and love of

approval are responsible for this. his fastidious habits ⶠthe thoracic is the most fastidious ofall the types. his thin skin and sensitive nerves make him more consciousof roughness and slovenliness than others. the result is thathe is what is called "more particular" about his person than are othertypes. the fat man often wears an old pair of shoes long past theirusefulness, but the florid man thinks more of the impression he createsthan of his own personal comfort, and will wear the shiniest of patentleathers on the hottest

day if they are the best match for his suit. likes all music ⶠevery kind of music is enjoyed by the purethoracic because he experiences so many moods. entertainment he prefers ⶠsocial affairs of an exclusive order wherehe wears his "best bib and tucker" and everybody else does the same,are amongst the favorite diversions of this type. he makes a favorableimpression under such conditions and is well aware of it.

other reasons for this preference are hisbrilliant conversational powers, his charm and his enjoyment of otherpeople and their view-points. the thoracic is also exceedinglyfond of dancing. enjoys vaudeville ⶠthe average thoracic enjoys vaudeville,follies, revues, etc., because they are full of quick changes of program.he enjoys, as does every type, certain kinds of movies, but he constitutesno such percentage of the movie-going audience as some other types. ⶠbooks and stories that are romantic, adventurous,and different are

the favorites of this type. detective storiesare often in high favor with him also. ⶠthe physical advantages of this type arehis quick energy--based on his wonderful breathing system--and the rich,rapid-flowing blood, produced by his wonderful heart system. he is noted for his ability to get "his secondwind" and has remarkable capacity for rising to sudden physical emergencies. ⶠa tendency to over-excitement and the consequentrunning down of his batteries is a physical pitfall often fatalto this type.

favorite sports ⶠhurdling, sprinting, tennis and all sportsrequiring short, intense spurts of energy are the ones in which thistype excels. ⶠcharm and responsiveness are the chiefsocial assets of the thoracic. inasmuch as these are the most valuable ofall social traits, he has a better natural start in human relationshipsthan any other type. ⶠquick temper, his inflammable nature andappearances of vanity are his greatest social liabilities. they stand betweenhim and success many times. he must learn to control them if hedesires to reap the full

benefit of his remarkable assets. ⶠinstantaneous sympathy and the lack ofpoisonous inhibitions are the outstanding emotional assets of this type. ⶠimpatience, mercurial emotions and theexpenditure of too much of his electricity in every little experience arethe tendencies most to be guarded against. ⶠthat he is a "good mixer" and has the magnetismto interest and attract others are his most valuable businesstraits. ⶠan appearance of flightiness and his tendencyto hop from one subject

to another, stand in the way of the thoracic'spromotion many times. ⶠthe ability to entertain and please hisown family and to give of himself to them as freely as he gives himselfto the world at large, is one of the most lovable thoracic traits. ⶠthe temperament and temper of this typeconstitute a real domestic problem for those who live with them. butthey are so forgiving themselves that it is almost impossible tohold anything against them. ⶠthe thoracic should aim at making fewerdecisions, at finishing what he starts, and of wasting less energy in unnecessarywords and motions.

ⶠall situations, conditions and people who"slip the belt off the will," who tend to cut life up into bits bydissipation or pleasure-seeking, should be avoided by thistype because they aggravate his own weaknesses in that direction. strong points ⶠpersonal ambition, adaptability and quickphysical energy are the strongest points of the thoracic. ⶠtoo great excitability, irresponsibilityand supersensitiveness, are the weakest points of this type.

how to deal with this type socially ⶠgive him esthetic surroundings, encouragehim to talk, and respond to what he says. these are the certain methodsfor winning him in social intercourse. ⶠget his name on the dotted line now, ordon't expect it. if he is an employee let him come into direct contactwith people, give his personality a chance to get business for you,don't forget to praise him when deserved, and don't pin him down to routine.this type succeeds best in professions where his personal charmcan be capitalized, and

does _not_ belong in any strictly commercialbusiness. _remember, the chief distinguishing marksof the thoracic in the order of their importance, are flushed complexion,high chest and long waist. any person who has these is largely of thethoracic type, no matter what other types may be included in his makeup._ chapter iii the muscular type "the worker" people in whom the muscular system is proportionatelylarger and more

highly developed than any of their other systemsare musculars. this system consists of the muscles of the organism. the "lean meat" type ⶠthe muscle-system of the human body issimply a co-ordinated, organized arrangement of layers of lean meat,of which every individual has a complete set. an individual's muscles may be small, flabby,deficient in strength or so thin as to be almost imperceptible butthey are always there--elementary in the infant, full grownin the adult and remnants in

the aged. but they are so smoothly fittedtogether, so closely knitted and usually so well covered that we seldomrealize their complexity or importance. in the pure muscular type his muscles arefirm and large. such muscles can not be disguised but seem to stand outall over him. helpless without them ⶠwithout them we would be helpless massesof fat and bone; we could not blink an eye nor lift a finger. yet we areso accustomed to them that we rarely think of them and seldom give themcredit for what they do.

without their wonder-work to adjust the eyeswe could not see; without their power the heart would cease to beat.we can not smile, sob, speak nor sing without using them. we would haveno pianists, violinists, dancers, aviators, inventors or workers ofany kind without them. everything we put together--from hooks andeyes to skyscrapers--is planned by our brains but depends for itsmaterialization upon the muscles of the human body. how to know him ⶠlook at any individual and you will noteone of these three

conditions: that his bones seem to be coveredjust by skin and sinews (which means that he belongs to the fourthtype) or thickly padded with fat (in which case he is largely of the firsttype) or well upholstered with _firm_ meat. in the latter case he is largely muscular,no matter what other types may be present in his makeup. in a short time you will be able to tell,at a glance, whether the padding on an individual is mostly fat ormostly muscle, because fat is always round and soft while muscle is firmand definite.

physical solidity ⶠa general solidity of structure, as distinguishedfrom the softness of the alimentive and the resilience of the thoracic,characterizes the muscular. (see chart 5) poke your finger into a fat man's hand andthough it makes a dent that dent puffs back quickly. do the same to themuscular and you will find a firmness and toughness of fiber that resistsbut stays there longer once the dent is made. not so malleable

ⶠthis little illustration is typical ofthe differences between these two natures throughout their entirety. justas the fat man's face gives to your touch, _he_ will give in to you moreeasily than any other type; but he will go back to the same placesooner and more smoothly when your pressure is removed. [illustration: 5 muscular the worker] the muscular does not mold so easily, is lesssuggestible, is less tractable than the alimentive or thoracicbut is less likely to revert afterwards.

built on the square ⶠ"on the square" is a figurative expressionusually applying to a moral tendency. in this sense it is as often possessedby one type as another. but in a purely literal sense the muscularis actually built on the square. his whole figure is a combinationof squares. the alimentive is built upon the circle, thethoracic on the kite-shape but the pure muscular always tends towarda squareness of outline. we repeat, he is no more "square" morallythan any other type, so do not make the mistake of attributing any more ofthis virtue to him than to

ⶠeach type has its own weaknesses and pointsof strength as differentiated from other types and theseare responsible for most of the moral differences between people. no type superior morally ⶠsince moral weakness comes from type weaknessand since each type possesses about as many weaknesses as theothers, it follows that no type is superior "morally" to any other andno type is morally inferior to any other. type and temptation

ⶠmorality is mostly a matter of how muchtemptation you can withstand. every individual in a civilized communityis surrounded by temptations of some kind most of the time. he does notwant to yield to any of them. every man and woman does the best of whichhis particular type is capable under a given circumstance. each individual resists many temptations forwhich we fail to give him credit. he yields only to those which makesuch a strong appeal to his type that he lacks the power of resistance. in other words, each person yields to thetemptations that prey upon his

particular weaknesses, and what his weaknessesare will depend upon his type. in the grip of these temptations hemay commit anything from discourtesy to crime--according to the strengthof the temptation plus his own leaning in that direction. on the other hand, certain "immoralities"which appeal strongly to some types have no attraction whatever for othersand these latter get credit for a virtuousness that has cost them nothing. praise and punishment ⶠon the other hand, each one of the fivehuman types has certain points

of strength and from these gets its natural"moral" qualities. we spend a great deal of energy giving praise and blamebut when we realize--as we are doing more and more--that the typeof an individual is responsible for most of his acts, we willgive less of both to the individual and more of both to the creator. type vs. training ⶠthe most that training can do is to braceup the weak spots in us; to cultivate the strong ones; to teach us toavoid inimical environments; and to constantly remind us of the penaltieswe pay whenever we digress.

child training ⶠas this great science of human analysisbecomes known the world will understand for the first time "how the otherhalf lives," and _why_ it lives that way. we will know why one child just naturallytells fibs while his twin brother, under identical training, just naturallytells the truth. what is more to the point we will know this intheir childhood and be prepared to give to each the kind of trainingwhich will weed out his worst and bring out his best.

short and stocky ⶠthe extreme muscular type (see chart 5)is below medium height, though one of any height may be largely muscular. the extreme type, of which we are treatingin this chapter, is shorter and heavier than the average. but his heavinessis due to _muscle_ instead of fat. he has the appearance of standingfirmly, solidly upon the ground, of being stalwart and strong. the square-shouldered man ⶠthe muscular's shoulders stand out morenearly at right angles than

those of any other type and are much broaderin proportion to his height. the alimentive has sloping shouldersand the thoracic inclines to high shoulders. but the shoulders of thepure muscular are straighter and have a squareness where thealimentive's have curves. this accounts for the fact that most of thesquare shouldered men you have known were not tall men, but medium orbelow medium in height. the wide square shoulders do not accompany anyother pure type, though naturally they may be present in an individualwho is a combination. has proportionately long arms

ⶠthe arms of pure musculars are longer inproportion to the body than the arms of other types. the arms of the alimentiveare short for his body but the extreme muscular's arms are alwaysanywhere from slightly longer to very much longer than his heightwould lead you to expect. the pure muscular head ⶠa "square head" is the first thing youthink of when you look at a pure muscular. his head has no such decideddigressions from the normal as the round head of the alimentive or thekite-shaped head of the thoracic. it is not high for his body likethe thoracic's nor small for

his body like the alimentive's, but is ofaverage proportions. [illustration: 6 typical muscular face typicalmuscular hand] his thick neck ⶠa distinctive feature of this type is histhick neck. it is not fat like that of the alimentive nor medium longlike that of the thoracic but has unusual muscularity and strength. this is one of the chief indications of themuscular's strength. a sturdy neck is one of the most significantindications of physical prowess and longevity, while the frail neck--ofwhich we shall speak in

connection with the fifth type--is alwaysa sign of the physical frailty which endangers life. the thickness of hisneck may sometimes give you the impression that the muscular head is smallbut if you will look again you will see that it is normal for hisbodily size. his square face ⶠlooking at him from directly in front youwill see that the muscular's face gives you an impression of squareness.(see chart 6) you will also notice that his side-head, cheeks and jawrun up and down in such a way as to give him a right-angled face.

his square jaw ⶠa broad jaw is another characteristic ofthis type. not only is it square, looked at from the front, but youare pretty sure to note that the jaw bones, as they proceed downward underthe ear, tend to make a right-angled turn at the corners instead ofa rounded curve. these dimensions tend to give the whole lowerpart of the muscular's face a box-like appearance. it is consideredbecoming to men but robs its female owners of the delicate, pointedchin so much desired by women.

the typical muscular hand ⶠnotice the hands of the people you meetand you will be surprised to see how different and how interesting theyare. their size, shape and structure as seen from the back of the handare especially significant and tell us much more about the individual'snature than the palm does. perhaps you have thought that a hand was justa hand. but there are hands and hands. each pure type has its ownand no other is ever seen on the extreme of that type. the hand of the muscular, like all the restof his body, is built in a

series of squares. it runs out from the wristand down in a straighter line and tends to right angles. (see chart6) the square fingers of this type ⶠ"spatulate fingers"--meaning fingers thatare square or paddle-shaped at the tips--are sure indications of a decidedmuscular tendency. he may have other types in combination butif his fingers are really square--"sawed off at the ends" in such away as to give them large instead of tapering ends--that person hasmore than average muscularity and the activities of his life will tend inthe directions referred to

in this chapter. the manual worker ⶠmusculars are the hand-workers of the world.they are the artisans, craftsmen, the constructors and builders. we all tend to use most those organs or partsof the body which are largest and most highly developed. the muscular'shand is proportionately larger than the hand of anyother type. it has more muscle, that one element without which goodhand work is impossible. so it has followed inevitably that the manualwork of the world is done

largely by musculars. their hands are alsoso much more powerful that they do not tire easily. the hand of the creative artist ⶠ"the artist's hand" and "the artistic hand"are phrases long used but misused. delicate tapering fingers were supposedin ancient times to denote artistic ability. the frail curvinghand was also supposed to be a sign of artistic talent. from the stage of old down to the movies oftoday the typical artist is pictured with a slight, slender hand.

this tapering-fingered hand denotes a keensense of artistic values; a love of the esthetic, refined and beautiful;and real artistic _appreciation_, but _not_ the ability to create. the "hand arts" ⶠbefore we explain this, kindly understandthat we are speaking only of those arts which require hand work--and notof such arts as singing, dancing, or musical composition which couldmore properly be called artistic activities. we are referring onlyto those arts which depend for their creation upon the human hand--suchas painting, architecture,

craftsmanship, cartooning, sculpture, violin,piano, etc. _all these are created by square fingeredpeople._ we are too much inclined to think of the productsof these arts as being created out of sheer artistic sense, artistictaste or artistic insight. but a moment's reflection will show that everytangible artistic creation is the result of unusual hand workcombined with gifted head work. without a sure, strong, well-knit handthe ideas of the greatest artists could never have materialized. thelack of such a hand explains why the esthetic, the artistic-minded andthe connoisseur do not

_create_ the beautiful things they _appreciate_. head and hand partners ⶠthe hand must execute what the brain plansand it must be so perfect a mechanism for this that it responds to themost elusive inspirations of the artist. it must be a fifty per cent partner,else its owner will never produce real art. no type has this strong, sure, co-ordinatedhand-machine to any such degree as the muscular. the finger ends, which are of the utmost significancein the creation of

artistic things, must be fitted with welldeveloped muscles of extreme efficiency or the execution will fall shortof the ideal pictured in the artist's mind. the pure muscular type seldom makes an artist,for, after all, inspired brain work is the other important elementin the creation of art, and this is the forte of the fifth type. a combinationof the fifth type with the muscular makes most hand artists.a combination of the muscular and thoracic makes most singers. every handartist will be found to have spatulate-fingered hands--in short, muscularhands.

the hand of the famous craftsman, pianist,sculptor and painter, instead of being more frail and delicate, is alwayslarger and heavier than that of the average person. such a hand is a certainindication of the muscular element in that individual's makeup. his powerful movements ⶠforceful, decisive movements also characterizethis type. he is inclined to go at even the most trivial thingswith as much force as if the world depended on it. recently we were exhibiting a small pencilsharpener to a muscular

friend. it was so sharp that it performedits work without pressure. but she took hold of it as if it were a pieceof artillery and pushed the pencil into it with all the force she had. when we remonstrated smilingly--for her faceand hands are ultra-square--she said, "but i can't do anythinglightly. i just naturally put that much force into everything." his forceful walk ⶠheavy, powerful, forceful strides distinguishthe walk of this type. if he has but ten steps to go he will startoff as if beginning an

around-the-world marathon. you hear him coming ⶠall musculars notify people, by their walk,of their approach. they are unconscious of this loud incisive tread,and most of them will be surprised to read it here. but their friendswill recognize it. the chances are that they have often spoken ofit amongst themselves. the loud voice ⶠthe "steam-calliope voice" belongs almostalways to a muscular. he does his talking just as he does everythingelse--with all his might.

it is very difficult for the muscular to "tonedown" this powerful voice. his long-suffering friends will testifyto this characteristic. his stentorian tones ⶠthis loud voice is a serious social handicapto him. his only chance of compensation for it lies in its use beforejuries, congregations or large audiences. it might be noted here that every great oratorhas been largely of this type, and also that his fame came not alonefrom the things he said but from the stentorian tones in which he saidthem.

famous male singers ⶠcaruso, john mccormack and all other famousmale singers had large thoracic systems, but in every instance itwas combined with a large muscular development. the solid sitter ⶠwhen a muscular sits down he does it ashe does everything--with definiteness and force. he does not spillover as does the alimentive nor drape himself gracefully like the thoracic,but planks himself as though he meant business.

activity his keynote ⶠbecause he is especially built for it themuscular is more active than any other type. without muscles no organismcould move itself from the spot in which it was born. biology teaches us that the stomach was thefirst thing evolved. the original one-call organism possessed but onefunction--digestion. as life progressed it became necessary to sendnutriment to those parts of the organism not touched by the stomach. for the purpose of reaching these suburbsthere was involved the

circulatory or thoracic system, and this gaverise, as we have seen in the previous chapter, to the thoracic type. movement and development ⶠas time went on movement became necessary,full development not being possible to any static organism. to meet thisneed muscles were evolved, and organic life began to move. it was only a wiggle at first, but that wigglehas grown till today it includes every kind of labor, globe trottingand immigration. the muscular is fitted with the best travelingequipment of any type and

invariably lives a life whose main reactionsexpress these things. the immigrant muscular ⶠno matter what his work or play the muscularwill make more moves during the course of a day than other types.he loves action because his muscles, being over-equipped for it, keepurging him from within to do things. as a result this type makes up most of theimmigrants of the world. italians, poles, greeks, russians, germansand jews are largely of this type and these are the races furnishing thelargest number of foreigners

in america. inertness irks him ⶠshut up a muscular and you destroy him.his big muscle system cries out for something to do. he becomes restless,nervous and ill when confined or compelled to be idle. the alimentive loves an easy time but themuscular dislikes ease except when exhausted. even then it is almost impossibleto stop him. must be doing something ⶠ"i can't bear to be doing nothing!" youoften hear people say. such a

person always has plenty of muscle. muscularswant to feel that they are not wasting time. they must be "up and doing,"accomplishing something. if there is nothing near them that needs doingthey are sure to go and find something. the born worker ⶠwork is second nature to this type. hereally prefers it. everyone likes some kind of work when in themood if it serves a purpose or an ideal. but the muscular likes work forits own sake--or rather for the activity's sake.

work palls on the alimentive and monotonyon the thoracic, but leisure is what palls on the muscular. he may haveworked ten years without a vacation and he may imagine he wants a longone, but by the morning of the third day you will notice he has founda piece of work for himself. it may be nothing more than hanging the screendoor, chopping the wood or dusting the furniture, but it will furnishhim with some kind of activity. because he enjoys action for its own sakeand because work is only applied action, this type makes the best worker.he can be trusted to

work harder than any other type. require less watching ⶠit is no accident that the three-hundred-mengangs of foreign workmen who dig ditches, tunnels and tubes, constructbuildings, railroads and cities work with fewer foremen and supervisorsthan are ordinarily required to keep much smaller forces of otheremployees at their posts. seldom unemployed ⶠfor this reason the muscular is seldomout of work. he is in demand at the best current wages because he can be dependedupon to "keep at it."

ⶠwhile writing this book our windows overlooka public park in one of america's one-million-population cities. hundredsof unemployed men sleep there day and night. having occasionto pass through this park daily for several months it has been interestingto note the types predominating. hardly one per cent belongedto the muscular type. likes to do things ⶠbecause he is such a hard worker this typegets a good deal of praise and glory just as the fat people, who manageto get out of work, receive a good deal of blame. yet work is almost aspleasant to the muscular as

leisure is to the alimentive. the muscular's pugnacity ⶠfighters--those who really enjoy a scrapoccasionally--are invariably musculars. their square jaws--the sure signof great muscularity--are famous the world over and especially so inthese days when war is once more in fashion. the next time you look at the front facesof pershing, haig, hindenberg or even that of your traffic policeman, notethe extremely muscular face and jaw. combat or personal fighting is amatter of muscle-action. being

well equipped for it this type actually enjoysit. that is why he is oftener in trouble than any other type. it was no accident that the phrase "big stick"was the slogan of an almost pure muscular. loves the strenuous life ⶠ"the strenuous life" was another of roosevelt'spet phrases and came from the natural leanings of his type. thetrue muscular is naturally strenuous. because we are prone to adviseothers to do what we enjoy doing ourselves it was inevitable that sostrenuous a man as t. r.

should advocate wholesale, universal and almostcompulsory strenuosity. we tell others to do certain things because"it will do you good" but the real reason usually is that we like todo it ourselves. the acrobatic type ⶠthe next time you go to a vaudeville showget there in time for the acrobatics and notice how all the participantsare musculars. if there are any other types taking part please observethat they are secondary to the acrobats--they catch the handkerchiefsor otherwise act as foils for the real performers.

all the hard work in the act will be doneby musculars. you will find no better examples of the short, stocky, well-knitpure muscular than here. you do not need to wait for another show torealize how true this is. recall the form and height of all the acrobatsyou have ever seen. you will remember that there was not one who didnot fit the description of the pure muscular given at the beginning ofthis chapter. acrobats always muscular ⶠwe once had occasion to refer to this factin a human analysis class. one member declared that just that week hehad seen a very tall,

unmuscular man performing in an acrobaticact at the orpheum. knowing that this was impossible, we offereda large reward to this member if he were proven right. we sent tothe theater and found the acrobat in question. he had just finishedhis act and kindly consented to come over. he turned out to be a pure muscular as wehad stated. the class member's mistake came from the fact that the acrobatappeared taller than he really was. high platforms always give thisillusion. furthermore his partner in the act was of diminutive heightand the acrobat looked tall

and slender by contrast. why they don't do it ⶠto be an acrobat is the ambition of almostevery boy. there have been few who did not dream, while doing those stuntsin the haymow on mother's broomstick, of the glory that shouldbe theirs when they grew up and performed in red tights for the multitudes. almost every boy has this ambition becausehe passes through a stage of decided muscular development in his earlyyears. but only those who were born with much larger muscles than the averageever carry out their

dreams. the others soon develop girth or the"sitting still" habit to the point where a cushioned seat in the firstrow of the parquet looks much better. durability in clothes ⶠsomething that will wear well is what thistype asks for when he drops in to buy a suit. musculars are not parsimoniousnor stingy. their buying the most durable in everything is notso much to save money as for the purpose of having something they donot need to be afraid to handle.

likes heavy materials ⶠthis type likes heavy, stable materials.whereas the alimentive wants comfortable clothes and the thoracic distinctiveones the muscular wants wearable, "everyday" clothes. he wants the materials to be of the best buthe cares less for color than the thoracic. quality rather than styleand plainness rather than prettiness are his standards in dress. "making over father's pants for johnnie" isa job muscular women have excelled in and for which they have becomefamous. for this type of

mother not only sees to it that father's pantsare of the kind of stuff that won't wear out easily but she has thesquare, creative hand that enjoys construction. the plain dresser ⶠsimple dresses--blue serge, for instance--arethe ones the muscular woman likes. this type cares little aboutclothes as ornamentation. he is intent on getting his desires satisfiedby doing things, not by looking them. he also resents the time andtrouble that fashionable dressing demands. no matter how much moneythis type has he will not be

inclined to extremes in dress. musculars arenot really interested in clothes for clothes' sake. it is not thatthis type is unambitious. he is extremely so, but he is so concentratedon "getting things done" that he is likely to forget how he looks whiledoing them. when a person of this type does take greatpains with his clothes it is always for a purpose, and not because he enjoyspreening himself. there is little of the peacock in the muscular. a simple soul ⶠmusculars are the most democratic of allthe types. the thoracic is a

natural aristocrat, and enjoys the feelingof a little innocent superiority. but musculars often refuse totake advantage of superior positions gained through wealth or station,and are inclined to treat everybody as an equal. it is almost impossiblefor this type, even though he may have become or have been borna millionaire, to "lord it over" servants or subordinates. he is givento backing democratic movements of all kinds. this explains whymusculars constitute the large majority in every radical group. humanness his hobby

ⶠbeing "human" is an ideal to which thistype adheres with almost religious zeal. he likes the commonplace thingsand is never a follower after "the thing" though he has no prejudicesagainst it, as the fourth type has. an everyday individual ⶠthe muscular does not care for "show" and,except when essential to the success of his aims, seldom does anythingfor "appearances." he is not an easy-going companion like thealimentive nor a scintillating one like the thoracic, but aneveryday sort of person.

when in trouble ⶠthis type is not given to sliding out ofdifficulties like the alimentive nor to being temporarily submergedby them like the thoracic. he "stands up to them" and backsthem down. when in trouble he acts, instead of merely thinking. the most practical type ⶠ"the practicalist" is often used to describethis type. he is inclined to look at everything from the standpointof its practicality and is neither stingy nor extravagant.

he likes what works ⶠ"will it work?" is the question this typeputs to everything. if it won't, though it be the most fascinating orthe most diverting thing in the world, he will take little interest init. this type depends mostly upon his own handsand head to make his fortune for him, and is seldom lured into riskingmoney on things he has not seen. the natural efficiency expert ⶠthe shortest, surest way is the one thistype likes. he is not

inclined to fussiness. he insists on thingsbeing done in the most efficient way and he usually does them thatway himself. he is not an easy man to work for, but quick to rewardmerit. the muscular does not necessarily demand money nor the things thatmoney buys but he tries to get the workable out of life. the property owner ⶠthis type likes to have a fair bank accountand to give his children a worth while training. he is less inclinedto bedeck them with frills but he will plan years ahead for their education.

these are not rigid parents like the fourthtype, lenient like the alimentives, nor temperamental with theirchildren like the thoracics, but practical and very efficient in theirparenthood. they are very fond of their children but do not "spoil" themas often as some of the other types do. they bring up their children to work and teachthem early in life how to do things. as a result, the children of thistype become useful at an early age and usually know how to earn a livingif necessary. wants the necessities

ⶠthe necessities of life are things thistype demands and gets. whereas the alimentive demands the comforts and thethoracic the unusual, the muscular demands the essentials. he is willingto work for them, so he usually succeeds. he is not given to rating frills and fripperiesas necessities but demands the things everyday men or women needfor everyday existence. naturally he goes after them with the sameforce he displays in everything else. his heart and soul in things

ⶠwhen some one shows great intensity ofaction directed toward a definite end we often say "he puts his heartand soul into it." this phrase is apropos of almost everything themuscular does. he makes no half-hearted attempts. an enthusiast ⶠ"enthusiasm does all things" said emerson,and therein explained why this type accomplishes so much. the reasonback of the muscular's enthusiasm is interesting. all emotions powerfully affect muscles. asad thought flits through your

mind and instantly the muscles of your facedroop and the corners of your mouth go down. hundreds of similar illustrationswith which you are already familiar serve to prove how closeis the connection between emotions and muscles. the heart itself isnothing more nor less than a large, tough, leather-like muscle. possessing the best equipment for expressingemotion, the muscular is constantly and automatically using it. therefore he becomes an enthusiast over manythings during the course of his lifetime. this enthusiasm literally burnshis way to the things he

wants. the plain talker ⶠwhen deeply moved this type talks well.if the mental element is also strong he can become a good public speakerfor he will then have all the qualifications--a powerful voice, human sympathy,democracy and simplicity. in private conversation he is inclined touse the verbal hammers too much and to be too drastic in his statements,accusations, etc. but he means what he tells you, no more, and usuallynot much less.

he avoids long words and complicated phraseseven when well educated and speaks with directness and decisiveness. straightforward ⶠ"straight from the shoulder" might be usedto describe the method of the pure muscular in what he does and says.he does not deal in furbelows, dislikes the superfluous and thesuperficial. he goes through life over the shortest roads. likes the common people ⶠplain folks like himself are the kind thistype prefers for friends.

he enjoys them immensely, but does not cultivateas large a number of them as does the thoracic, nor have as many"bowing acquaintances" as the alimentive. snubs the snobs ⶠthe snob is disliked by every one but isthe especial aversion of this type. being so democratic himself and livinghis life along such commonplace lines, he has no patience withpeople who imagine they are better than others or who carry the air ofsuperiority. the only person therefore whom the muscularis inclined to snub is the

snob. he is not overawed by him and enjoys"taking him down a peg," whenever he tries his high and mighty airson him. defends the "under dog" ⶠstanding by the under dog is a kind ofreligion with this type. he glories in fighting for the downtrodden. thisexplains why he is so often a radical. much of this vehemence inradicalism is due to the fact that he feels he is getting even with thesnobs of the world--the plutocrats--when he furthers the causes ofthe proletariat. often on the warpath

ⶠto "have it out" with you is the firstinclination of this type when he becomes angry. he is apt to say atrocious things and to exaggeratehis grievances. everything must yield to his "dander" onceit is up. being possessed of a highly developed fighting equipment, heis like a battleship, with every gun in place, most of the time. he is frequently in violent quarrels withhis friends, and since he does not recover from his anger quickly like thethoracic, he often loses them for life.

the most generous friend ⶠwhen they like you the musculars are themost abandoned in their generosity of all the types. they "go thelimit" for you, as the westerner says, and they go it with theirmoney, time, love and enthusiasm. all types do this for short periods occasionallyand for a very few choice friends. but the muscular often doesit for people he scarcely knows if they strike his fancy or appeal tohim. his heart and his home belong to the strangeralmost as completely as to

his family, for he does not feel a strangerto any one. he feels from the first moment, and acts, as though he hadknown you always. this accounts for his democracy, for his successas an orator, and--sometimes for his being "broke." not a quick forgiver ⶠbut disappoint him in anything he considersvital and he does not overlook it easily. he finds it especiallydifficult to forgive people who take advantage of the generosity he solavishly extends. but he does not make his hate a life-long one, as thefourth type does.

with all his own giving to others he seldomtakes much from others. the naturally independent ⶠ"standing on his own legs" is a well-knowntrait of the muscular. dependence is bred of necessity. this typebeing able to get for himself most of the things he wants, rarely findsit necessary to call upon others for assistance. love of self-government, plus fighting pluck,both of which are inherent in the muscular irish race, are responsiblefor the long struggle for their independence.

likes plain foods ⶠ"meat and potatoes" are the favorite dietof the average american muscular. the alimentive wants richness andsweetness in food, the thoracic wants variety and daintiness butthe muscular wants large quantities of plain food. the alimentive specializes in desserts, thethoracic in unusual dishes, but the muscular wants solid fare. he is sofond of meat it is practically impossible for him to confinehimself to a vegetable diet. ⶠthe muscular is most often found in moderatecircumstances. he is

rarely far below or far above them. most ofthe plain, simple, everyday things he desires can be secured by peopleof average means. he does not feel the necessity for becoming a millionaireto obtain comforts like the alimentive, nor for extravagances likethe thoracic. ⶠphilanthropy marks the expenditures ofthis type whenever he is rich. he does not spend as much of his money forpossessions but enjoys investing it in what he deems the real--thatis, other human beings. the most plain and durable things in furnishings,architecture and service characterize the rich of this typein their homes.

the world's work done by musculars ⶠbroadly speaking, the fat man manages theworld, the florid man entertains the world, and the muscular mandoes the work of the world. he composes most of the day-laborers, themiddle men, the manual and mechanical toilers the world around, as wehave stated before. he could get out of his hard places into betterpaid ones if he did not like activity so well, but lacking the loveof ease and show he is willing to work hard for the necessities oflife. simple habits

ⶠthe muscular's nature does not demand theexciting, the gregarious or the food-and-drink things that lead towardlaxity. he is seldom a dissipator. he likes to goto bed early, work hard and make practical progress in his life. he leads the simple and yet the most strenuousexistence of any type. entertainment he enjoys ⶠplays about plain people, their everydayexperiences, hopes and fears are the kind that interest this type most. the "problem play" of a decade ago was a primefavorite with him. he

likes everything dealing with these everydaycommonplace affairs with which he is most familiar. he frequently goes to serious lectures--somethingthe pure alimentive always avoids--and he especially enjoys themif they deal with the problem of the here and now. he cares little for comic opera, vaudevilleor revues because he feels they serve no practical purpose and get himnowhere. this type does not attend the theater merely to be amused. hegoes for light on his everyday experiences and usually considerstime wasted that is spent

solely on entertainment. music he likes ⶠband music, stirring tunes and all musicwith "go" to it appeals to this type. ⶠtrue stories, news and the sport page arethe favorite newspaper reading of the muscular. he does not taketo sentimental stories so much as the alimentive, nor to adventure so muchas the thoracic but sticks to practical subjects almost exclusively. being active most of his waking hours, andstrenuously active at that,

the muscular is often too tired at night toread anything. his favorite sports ⶠthe most violent sports are popular withthis type. football, baseball, handball, tennis, rowing and pugilismare his preferences. all experts in these lines are largely muscular. ⶠhis wonderful muscular development, uponwhich depends so much of life's happiness--since accomplishment ismeasured so largely thereby--is the greatest physical asset ofthis type. with it he can accomplish almost anything of which his mindcan conceive.

he is capable of endless effort, does nottire easily, and because of his directness makes his work count to theutmost of his mental capacity. ⶠa tendency to overwork is the chief physicalpitfall of this type. the disease to which he is most susceptible isrheumatism. but owing to his love of activity he exercises more than anyother type and thus forestalls many diseases. ⶠhis generosity is the strongest socialasset of the muscular. he is usually straightforward and sincere and therebygains the confidence of

those who meet him. ⶠhis loud voice and his plain ways are thedisadvantages under which this type labors in social intercourse. heneeds polishing and is not inclined to take it. his pugnacity is alsoa severe drawback. ⶠunderstanding, enthusiasm and warmth ofheart are the emotional qualities which help to make him the publicleader he so often is. these have made him the "born orator," the radicaland the reformer of all ages. ⶠhis tendency to anger and combat are shacklesthat seriously handicap

him. many times these lose him the big opportunitieswhich his splendid traits might obtain for him. ⶠefficiency and willingness to work hardand long are the greatest business assets of this type. ⶠpugnacity over trifles costs the averagemuscular many business chances. he has to fight out every issue andwhile he is doing it the other fellow closes the deal. he is inclined to argue at great length. thishelps him as a lawyer or speaker but it hurts him in business. curbinghis combativeness in

business should be one of his chief aims. ⶠpractical protection for the future isthe greatest gift of the average muscular to his family. he is notas lenient with his children as is the alimentive nor as effusive as thethoracic, but he usually lays by something for their future. ⶠcruel, angry words do the muscular muchharm in his family life. they cause his nearest and dearest to hold againsthim the resentments that follow. ⶠtaking more frequent vacations, relaxingeach day, and curbing his

pugnacity should be the special aims of thistype. ⶠsuperficial and quarrelsome people, allsituations requiring pretence, and everything that confines and restrictshis physical activity should be avoided by this type. ⶠdemocracy, industry and great physicalstrength are the strongest points of this type. ⶠinclination to overwork and to fight constitutethe muscular's two weakest links. ⶠdon't put on airs nor expect him to whenyou are meeting this type

socially. be straightforward and genuine withhim if you would win him. ⶠremember, this type is inclined to be efficientand democratic and you had better be the same if you wish to succeedwith him in business. he is intensely resentful of the man who triesto put anything over on him; and demands efficiency. so when you promisehim a thing see to it that you deliver the goods and for the pricestated. he does not mind paying a good price if he knows it in thebeginning, but beware of raising it afterwards. the muscular is seriousin business, not a jollier like the alimentive, nor a thrillerlike the thoracic, and he

wants you to be the same. _remember, the chief distinguishing marksof the muscular, in the order of their importance, are large, firm muscles,a square jaw and square hands. any person who has these is largelyof the muscular type, no chapter iv the osseous type "the stayer" men and women in whom the osseous or bonyframework of the body is more highly developed than any other system arecalled the osseous type.

this system consists of the bones of the bodyand makes what we call the skeleton. just as the previous systems were developedduring man's biological evolution for purposes serving the needs ofthe organism--first, a stomach-sack, then a freight system in theform of arteries to carry the food to remoter parts of the body, and latermuscles with which to move itself about--so this bony scaffolding wasdeveloped to hold the body upright and better enable it to defend andassert itself. [illustration: 7 osseous "the stayer"]

man is a creature who, in spite of his height,walks erect. he can so do only by means of the support given him byhis bony framework. the human body is like a tall building--the musclesare like the mortar and plaster, the bones are like the steel frameworkaround which everything else is built and without which the structurecould not stand upright. ⶠprominent ankles, wrists, knuckles andelbows are sure signs that such an individual has a large osseous or bonyelement in his makeup. when you look at any person you quickly discernwhether fat, bone or muscle predominates in his construction. iffat predominates he leans

toward the alimentive, no matter what othertypes he may have in combination; if firm, well-defined musclesare conspicuous, he is largely muscular; but if his bones are _proportionatelylarge for his body_ he has much of the osseous type in hismakeup. the "raw-boned" man ⶠ"raw-boned" exactly describes the appearanceof the extreme osseous. (see chart 7) such a man is a contrast to others in anygroup and a figure with which all of us are familiar. but that his innernature differs as widely

from others as his external appearance differsfrom theirs is something only recently discovered. as we proceed through this chapter you willbe interested to note how every trait attributed to this type applieswith absolute accuracy to every extremely raw-boned, angular personyou have ever known. you will also notice how these traits have predominatedin every person whose bones were large for his body. though this type was the last to be classifiedby science it is the most extreme of them all.

physical rigidity ⶠan impression of physical rigidity is givenby the extreme osseous. such a man or woman looks stable, unchanging,immovable--as though he could take a stand and keep to it throughthick and thin. so vividly do very tall, angular, raw-bonedpeople convey this impression that they are seldom approachedby beggars, barked at by street vendors, or told to "step lively." his size looks formidable ⶠthe power of his physique is evident toall who look at him. the

strength indicated by his large joints, angularhands and general bulk intuitively warns others to let this kindof person alone. he is therefore unmolested for the most part,whether he walks down the streets of his home town or wanders the bywaysof dangerous vicinities. his ruggedness ⶠthis type also looks rugged. he remindsus of "the rugged rockies." he appears firm, fixed, impassive--as thougheverything about him was permanent. externals are not accidental; they alwayscorrespond to the internal

nature in every form of life. and it is notaccidental that the osseous looks all of these things. he is all of themas definitely as they can be expressed in human nature. the steady man ⶠof all human types the osseous is the mostdependable and reliable. the phrases, "that man is steady," "neverflies off the handle," "always the same," etc., are invariably used concerningthose of more than average bony structure. immovability his keynote

ⶠthe keynote of the bony man's whole nature--mental,physical and moral--is immovability. once he settles into a place of any kind--atown, a home, or even a chair--he is disinclined to move. he doesnot settle as quickly as other types but when he does it is for a longerstay. think how different he is from others in thispsychological trait and how it coincides exactly with his physiologicalstructure. the fat man lets you make temporary dentsin his plans just as you make them in a piece of fat meat. but the bonyman is exactly the opposite,

just as bone is difficult to twist, or turn,or alter in any way. it takes a long time and much effort--but onceit is changed it is there for good. the "six-footer" ⶠbecause any individual's height is determinedby his skeleton, extreme tallness is a sign of a larger than averagebony structure. the extreme osseous is therefore tall. but you must remember that large joints aremore significant than height. even when found in short people theyindicate a large osseous

tendency. large bones for his body ⶠso bear in mind that any person whose _bonesare large for his body_ is somewhat of the osseous type, regardlessof whether he is short or tall and regardless of how much fat or musclehe may have. the large-jointed person when fat is an osseous-alimentive.a large-jointed man of muscle would be an osseous-muscular. the "small osseous" ⶠa very short person then may be predominantlyosseous if his bones are

proportionately large for his body. such anindividual is called a "small osseous." a head that is high for his body and inclinesto be straight up and down goes with the extreme osseous type. (see chart8) it does not resemble a sphere like the alimentive, is not kite-shapedlike the thoracic, nor square like the muscular. it is higher thanany of the others, stands on a longer, more angular neck, and his "adam'sapple" is usually in evidence. the pioneer type

ⶠlike each of the other types, the osseousis a result of a certain environment. rigorous, remote regions requirejust such people, and these finally gave rise to this stoical nature.the outposts of civilization are responsible for his evolution. [illustration 8: a: typical osseous face b:typical osseous hand] pioneering, with its hardship, its menacingcold and dearth of comforts, in far countries at last produced a man whocould stand them, who could "live through" almost anything and still dominatehis surroundings. not a "softie"

ⶠthe osseous does not give way to his feelings.he keeps his griefs, sorrows, ambitions and most of his real opinionsto himself. he is the farthest from a "softie" of any type. if you desire to know at once what kind ofperson the osseous is, put the alimentive and thoracic types togetherand mix them thoroughly. the osseous is the _opposite_ of that mixture. each and every trait he possesses is one whoseexact opposite you will find in one or the other of these first twotypes. consistency in types

ⶠas we go on in this chapter you will seewhy all kinds of people make up the world, for nature has outdone herselfin the distinctions between the five human types. each type is made up of certain groups oftraits with which we have come in contact all our lives but which we havenever classified; and each "set" of traits comprising a type has a consistencywhich nothing less than mother nature could have produced. youwill be interested to see how accurate are the statements concerningeach type and how they are proven again and again in every type you associatewith.

guesswork is no longer necessary in the sizingup of strangers. you can know them better than their mothers know themif you will get these nutshells of facts clearly in your mind andthen _apply_ them. his high cheek bones ⶠcheek bones standing higher than the averageare always indicative either of a large thoracic or a large osseouselement. if the distance between the cheeks is so wideas to make this the widest section of the face, it is probable that theperson is more thoracic than osseous. but if his face is narrow acrossthe cheek bones, and

especially if it runs perpendicularly downto the jaw-corners from that point instead of tapering, the person is largeof the osseous type. built on the oblong ⶠan oblong is what the osseous brings tomind. his body outlines approximate the oblong--a squareness pluslength. he is full of right angles and sharp corners. (see chart 7) his face is built on the oblong (see chart8) and if you will notice the side-head of the next osseous man you meetyou will see that even a side view presents more nearly the appearance ofthe oblong than of any other

geometrical figure. the oblong hand ⶠ"the gnarled hand" well describes thatof the osseous. the hand outlines of this type also approximate theoblong. (see chart 8) it runs straight down instead of tapering when thefingers are held close together. the hand of the osseous matches his body,head and face. it is bony, angular, large-jointed and as rigid as itlooks. the inflexibility of his hand is always apparent in his handshake.

knotty fingers ⶠknotty fingers characterize the hands ofthis type. their irregular appearance comes from the size of the jointswhich are large, in keeping with all the joints running throughout hisorganism. everything in one of nature's creatures matchesthe other parts. agassiz, the great naturalist, when giventhe scale of a fish could reconstruct for you the complete organismof the type of fish from which it came. give a tree-leaf to a botanist andhe will reconstruct the size, shape, structure and color of the treeback of it. he will

describe to you its native environment andits functions; what its bark, blossoms and branches look like and what todo to make it grow. no guesswork in nature ⶠnature has no accidents. with her everythingis organized, everything has a purpose, and every part of a thing,inside and out, matches the whole. so the hand of the osseous and theface of the osseous match the body and head. this is also true of every other type. thealimentive has small, fat, dimpled hands and feet like his body; thethoracic has tapering hands

and feet to match his face and body; the muscular'sbody, hands and feet are all square; but the osseous has a bonybody, so his hands and feet are equally bony. the man of slow movements ⶠ"he is too slow for me," you have heardsome one say of another. perhaps you heard it said today. review theoutward appearance of all the people you know who have this reputation,from those of your earliest childhood down to that person ofwhom it was spoken today--and you will find that every one of them resembledthe bony type we have

just been describing. look back and call to mind the appearanceof all the "rapid" ones and you will find that in every case they possessedhigh color, high chests or high-bridged noses. take another look forthe easy-going amenable ones, and see how plump they all were! the straight-laced ⶠnone of these things "just happened." theyare the result of the law of cause and effect. the connection betweenexternal and internal traits is becoming clearer every day and revealssome very unexpected things.

one that has been discovered very recentlyis that the straight-faced are the straight-laced. notice for yourselfand you will find that every person who is really "straight-laced" is aperson with a straight face--that is, a face with straighter up-and-downlines than the think back over those you have known who comeunder this heading and you will find no actually round-faced peopleamongst them. no matter how sanctimonious, religious orcorrect a person may act when his position or the occasion demands it, ifhe has a round, "moon" face he is not really straight-laced at heart.any one who knows him well

enough to know his real nature will tell youso. the naturally conventional ⶠthe "born puritan," the ascetic, and thenaturally conventional person is, on the other hand, invariably an individualof more severe facial outlines. this person may be in an unconventional position;your straight-faced, severe-lined person may be a gambler, a boot-legger,or follow any other line defying the conventions; but he is atheart a conservative after all. for instance, you will always find, whenyou know him, that he does

things in a way that is very conventionalto him. that is, he has decided standards, rules, habits and requirements,and he clings rigidly to them in the transaction of his business,regardless of how lax the business itself may be. "a certain way of doing things" means as muchto him, at heart, as it means little to the circular-faced people. systematic and methodical ⶠ"a place for everything and everythingin its place" is a rule preached and practised by people of this type.

the osseous person does not mislay his things.he knows so well where they are that he can "go straight to themin the dark." such a man is careful of his tools and keeps his work-benchor desk "shipshape." a woman of this type is an excellent housekeeper.her sewing basket, dresser drawers and pantry shelves are allsystematically arranged in apple-pie order. the typical new england housewife, who washeson mondays, irons on tuesdays and bakes on saturdays for fortyyears, is a direct descendant of the puritans, most of whom belong to thisbony, pioneering type.

the stiff sitter ⶠextremely osseous people are inclined tobe somewhat formal in their movements. they make fewer motions than anyother type. they do not wave their hands or arms about when talkingand are almost devoid of gesticulation of any kind. they sit uprightinstead of slumping down in their chairs, except when tall and lanky,and usually prefer "straight-backs" to rockers. the osseous walk ⶠthe extremely raw-boned person has alsoa formal gait. his walk, like

all his other movements, is inclined to bedeliberate and somewhat mechanical. ⶠnothing about the five types is more interestingthan the walk which distinguishes each. the alimentive undulatesor rolls along; the thoracic is an impulsive walker, and the muscularis forceful in his walk. but the osseous walks mechanically,deliberately, and refuses to hurry or speed up. the naturally poised ⶠthe osseous has more natural poise thanany other type.

he is not impressionable, excitable or arousable.things do not "stir him up" as they do other people. he is moreself-contained, self-controlled and self-sufficient than anyother. he is not easily carried off his feet and seldom yields toimpulse. it is difficult to get him to do anything on the spur of themoment. he usually has his evenings, sundays and vacations all plannedin advance and won't change his schedule. not given to "nerves" ⶠliterally as well as figuratively the osseousis not a man of

"nerves." every fiber of his being is lesssusceptible to outside stimuli than that of other types. in thishe is the exact opposite of the thoracic whose nerves, as we have pointedout, are so finely organized that he is hypersensitive. resists change ⶠosseous people do not change anything,from their hair dress to their minds, any oftener than necessary. when theydo, it is for what they consider overpoweringly good reasons. these people are not flighty. they have theirwork, their time and their

lives laid out systematically and do not allowtrivialities to upset them. they take a longer time to deliberateon a proposed line of action, but once they have made a decision,adhere to it with much greater tenacity than any other type. the constant ⶠpeople of this type are not fickle norflirtatious. they love few; but once having become enamored are not easilyturned aside. it is this type that remains true to one love throughmany years, sometimes for life.

the implacable ⶠthe osseous are not prone to sudden outburstsof temper. but they have the unbending kind when it is aroused. never forgiving and never forgetting is atrait of these people as contrasted with the thoracic. the alimentive avoids those he does not likeand forgets them because it is too much bother to hate; the thoracic flamesup one moment and forgives the next; the muscular takes it outin a fight then and there, or argues with you about it.

but the osseous despises, hates and loathes--andkeeps on for years after every one else has forgotten all aboutit. the "rock-bound puritan" type, as stony as the new englandland from which it gets its living, is always bony. the implacable fatherwho turns his child away from home, with orders "never to darken hisdoor again," always has a lot of bone in his structure. those who refuseto be softened into forgiveness by the years are always of thistype. not adaptable ⶠit is difficult for the osseous to "fitin." he is not adaptable and

in this is once again the opposite of thethoracic. it is impossible for him to adjust himself quickly to people orplaces. because he is unyielding, unbending and unadjustablehe is called "sot in his ways." he should not be misjudged for this inadaptability,however, for it is as natural to him as smoothness is to thealimentive and impulsiveness to the thoracic. he is made that way and isno more to blame for it than you are for having brown eyes instead of blue. the one-track man

ⶠ"single-track minds" are characteristicof this type. they get an idea or an attitude and it is there to stay. theythink the same things for many years and follow a few definite linesof action most of their lives. but it is to be remembered in this connectionthat this type often accomplishes more through his intensive concentrationthan more versatile types. while they follow many by-pathsin search of their goal the osseous sticks to the main track. the born specialist

ⶠ"this one thing i do," is a motto of theosseous. they are the least versatile of any type and do not like to jumpfrom one kind of work to another. they prefer to do one thing at a time, doit well and finish it before starting anything else. because of this theosseous stars inspecialities. dislikes many irons in the fire ⶠthe man who likes many irons in the fireis never an osseous. to have more than one problem before him at one timemakes him irritable, upset

and exasperated. the most dependable type ⶠthe unchangingness which handicaps theosseous in so many ways is responsible for one very admirable trait.that trait is dependability. the osseous is reliable. he can be taken athis word more often than any other type, for he lives up to it with greatercare. always on time ⶠwhen an osseous person says, "i will meetyou at four o'clock at the corner of main and market," he will arriveat main and market at _four_

o'clock. he will not come straggling along,nor plead interruptions, nor give excuses. he will be on the exact spotat the exact hour. in this he is again a contrast to the firsttwo types. an alimentive man will roll into the offing at a quarter, ormore likely, a half hour past the time, smilingly apologize and be so naiveyou forgive and let it go at that. the thoracic will arrive anywhere from fiveafter four to six o'clock, drown you in a thrilling narrative of justhow it all happened, and never give you a chance to voice your angertill he has smoothed it all

out of you. an exacting man ⶠbut the osseous is disdainful of such tacticsand you had better beware of using them on him. he is dependablehimself and demands it of others--a little trait all of us have regardingour own particular virtues. likes responsibility ⶠresponsibility, if it does not entail toomany different kinds of thought and work, is enjoyed by the osseous.

he can be given a task, a job, a positionand he will attend to it. entrust him with a commission of any kind,from getting you a certain kind of thread to discovering the north pole,and he will come pretty near carrying it out, if he undertakes it. finishes what he starts if an osseous decides to do a piece of workfor you you can go ahead and forget all about it. no need to advise, urge,watch, inspire, coax and cajole him to keep him at it. he prefers tokeep at a thing if he starts it himself. you may have to hurry him butyou will not have to watch him

in order to know he is sticking to his task.this type starts few things but he brings those few to a pretty successfulconclusion. the martyr of the ages ⶠ"died for a cause" has been said of manypeople, but those people have in every known instance been possessed ofa larger-than-average bony structure. ⶠthe pure alimentive seldom troubles hishead about causes. the thoracic is the type that lives chiefly forthe pleasure of the moment and the adventures of life. the muscular fightshard and works hard for

various movements. but it is the osseous who dies for his beliefs. it is the osseous or one who is largely ofthis type who languishes in prison through long years, refusing to retract. he is enabled to do this because the ostracism,jibes and criticism with which other types are finally cowed, havelittle effect upon him. on the contrary, opposition of any kind whets hisdetermination and makes him keep on harder than ever. takes the opposite side

ⶠ"if you want him to do a thing, tell himto do the opposite," is a well-known rule supposed to work with certainkinds of people. you have wondered why it sometimes workedand sometimes didn't, but it is no mystery to the student of human analysis. when it worked, the person you tried it onwas an osseous or one largely osseous in type; and when it didn't he wasof some other type. "contrary?" complained a man of a bony neighborrecently, "contrary is his middle name." "i am open to conviction but i would liketo see the man who could

convince me!" is always said by a man whosetype you will be sure to recognize. an "againster" ⶠ"i don't know what it is but i'm againstit," is the inside mental attitude of the extremely raw-boned, angularman or woman. they often, unconsciously, refrain from makinga decision about a thing till the other fellow makes his. that settlesit; they take the other side. think back over your school-days and callto mind the visage and bodily

shape of the boy who was always on the oppositeside, who just naturally disagreed, who "stood out" against the others.he was a bony lad every time. remember the "fatty" with a face like a fullmoon? did he do such things? he did not. he was amenable, easy-going,good natured, and didn't care how the discussion came out, solong as it didn't delay the lunch hour. remember the boy or girl who had the pickof the school for company whenever there was a party, who danced welland was so sparkling that

you always felt like a pebble competing againsta diamond when they were around? that boy or girl had a high chest,or high color, or a high-bridged nose--and usually all three. but the one you couldn't persuade, who couldn'tbe won over, who refused to give in, who held up all the unanimousvotes till everybody was disgusted with him, and who rather gloriedin the distinction--that boy had big bones and a square jaw--the proofthat he was a combination of the osseous and muscular types. the human balance wheel

ⶠto keep the rest of the world from runningaway with itself, to prevent precipitous changes in laws, customsand traditions, has always been one of the functions performed for societyby the bony people. these people are seldom over-persuaded, andbeing able to retain a perpendicular position while the rest of theworld is being swayed this way and that, they act as society's balancewheel. the osseous changes after a while, but itis a long while, and by the time he does, the rest of the world has marchedon to something new which he opposes in its turn.

wears same style ten years ⶠeven the clothes worn by this type tellthe same story. styles may come and styles may go, but the osseous goeson forever wearing the same lines and the same general fashions hewore ten years before. if you will recall the men who continued wearingloose, roomy suits long after the "skin-tight" fashions came in, orthe women who kept to long, full skirts when short ones were the vogueyou will note that every one of them had large joints or long faces. bony people find a kind of collar or hat thatjust suits, and to that

hat and that collar they will stick for twentyyears! disdains the fashions ⶠin every city, neighborhood and countrycrossroads there is always somebody who defies the styles of today bywearing the styles of ten years ago. every such person is a bony individual--neverunder any circumstances a moon-faced, round-bodied one. in every caseyou will find that his face is longer, his nose is longer, or his jawand hands are longer than the average--all osseous indications.

ⶠthe bony man's adherence to one style orto one garment is not primarily because he wishes to save money,though saving money is an item that he never overlooks. it is due ratherto his inability to change anything about himself in accordancewith outside influence until a long time has elapsed. doesn't spend money lavishly ⶠthe osseous is, as stated at the head ofthis chapter, a "stayer" and this applies to everything he wears, thinks,says, believes, and to the way he carries on every activity of his life.

no matter how rich he may be he will not buyone kind of car today and another tomorrow, nor one house this weekand another in six weeks. he uses his money, as all of us do, to maintainhis type-habits and to give freer rein to them, not to change themto any extent. this type likes sameness. he likes to "get acquainted"with a thing. he never takes up fads and is the most conservativeof all types. unlike the thoracic, he avoids extremes in everythingand dislikes anything savoring of the "showy" or conspicuous. not a social star

ⶠbecause he dislikes display, refuses toyield to the new fangled fashions of polite society and finds it hardto adapt himself to people, the man of this type is seldom a social success. he is the least of a "ladies' man" of allthe types. the osseous woman is even less disposed to social life thanthe osseous man because the business and professional demands, which compelmen of this type to mingle with their fellows, are less urgentwith her. likes the same food ⶠthe same "yesterday, today and forever"is the kind of food preferred

by this type. he seldom orders anything new.the tried and true things he has eaten for twenty-five years are hisfavorites and it is almost impossible to win him away from them. "i havehad bread and milk for supper every sunday night for thirty years,"a bony man said to us not long ago. means what he says ⶠthe osseous does not flatter and seldompraises. even when he would like to, the words do not come easily. butwhen he does give you a compliment you may know he means it. he isincisive and specific--a

little too much so to grace modern socialintercourse where so much is froth. a man of few words ⶠa man of few words is always and invariablya man whose bones are large for his body. the fat man uses up agreat many pleasant, suave, merry, harmless words; the thoracic inundatesyou with conversation; the muscular argues, declares and states; butthe osseous alone is sparing of his words. the hoarder

ⶠbony people are never lavish with anything.they do not waste anything nor throw anything away. these are the peoplewho save things and store them away for years against the day when theymay find some use for them. when they do part with them it is alwaysto pass them on "where they will do some one some good." careful of money ⶠyou never saw a stingy fat man in yourlife. imagine a two-hundred-pound miser! neither have youever seen a really stingy man who was red-faced and high-chested. nor haveyou ever found a real

muscular who was a "tightwad." but you have known some people who were prettyclose with their money. and every one of them was inclined to boniness. ⶠbony men are seldom "broke" for they aremore careful of expenditures than any other type. even when they receivesmall salaries this type of person always has something laid by. but theextreme osseous never makes a million. the same caution which preventshis spending much money also prevents the plunges that make big money. ⶠthe osseous cares more for money than anyone else. this is what has

enabled him, when combined with some othertype, to be so successful in banking--a business where you risk the otherman's money, not your own. the extreme osseous is never lax or extravagantwith his money no matter how much he has. he never believes in payingany more for a thing than is necessary. take note of the men who carrypurses for silver instead of letting their change lie loose in theirpockets. they are bony every time! fat people and florid people are theones who let their greenbacks fall on the floor while paying the cashier! fear of the future

ⶠ"the rainy day" doesn't worry the fat peopleor the florid ones, but it is seldom out of the consciousness of thebony men and women. so they cling to their twenty-dollar-a-week clerkshipsfor years because they are afraid to tackle anything entailing risk. pays his bills ⶠ"i had rather trust a bony man than anyother kind," is what the credit experts have told us. "other thingsbeing equal, he is the most reliable type in money matters, and pays hisbills more promptly." ⶠthe bony man is one who seldom approachesthe credit man, however. he

usually has enough to get the few things hereally wants and if not he waits till he has. extremely bony husbands give their wives smallerallowances in proportion to their total income than anyother type, and because they are systematic themselves they are more likelyto ask for reports and itemizations as to where it goes. the fat husbands and the florid husbands arethe ones who give their wives their last cent and never ask what becomesof it. the repressed man

ⶠthe osseous man or woman is always somewhatrepressed. unlike the thoracic, who uncorks and bubbles like a champagnebottle, he keeps the lid on his feelings. bony people are always more reticent thanothers. they invariably tell less of their private or personal may live across the hall from a bony man for years without knowingmuch about him. he is as secretive as the thoracic is confiding andas guarded as the alimentive is naive. loyal to his few friends

ⶠ"once your friend always your friend" canbe said about the osseous oftener than any other type. ⶠthe osseous does not make friends easilyand is not a "mixer" but keeps his friends for many years. he "takesto" very few people but is exceedingly loyal to those of his choice. the "salt of the earth" ⶠpeople of the osseous type say little,they do little for you and they do not gush--but they are always there whenyou need them and "always the same." they write few letters to you whenaway, and use few words

and little paper when they do. they are likelyto fill every page, to write neatly, to waste no margins and to avoidflourishes. their letters seldom require an extra stamp. plans ahead foresight, laying plans far into the future,and keeping an eye out for breakers ahead, financially and otherwise,are tendencies which come natural to the osseous. he does not like to wait until the last momentto do a thing. he dislikes unexpectedness and emergencies ofany kind. he is always

prepared. for instance a bony person willthink out every move of a long journey before boarding his train. weeks inadvance he will have the schedule marked and put away in his coat pocket--andhe knows just which coat he is going to wear too! the longest lived ⶠthe osseous lives longer than any othertype, for two reasons. the first is that his lack of "nerves" saves himfrom running down his batteries. he seldom becomes excited and doesnot exhaust himself in emotional orgies.

the second is that he habitually under-eats--usuallybecause he does not care so much for food as the first three types,but quite often because he prefers to save the money. ⶠthe bony man does not like people who tryto speed him up, hurry him, or make him change his habits. flashy peopleirritate him. but his worst aversions are the people who try todictate to him. this type can not be driven. the only way to handle himis to let him think he is having his own way. likes the submissive

ⶠamenable people who never interfere withhim yet lend themselves to his plans, desires and eccentricities arethe favorites of this type. ⶠno diseases can be said to strike the osseousmore frequently than any other type. but moodiness, fear--especially financialfear--long-sustained hatreds and resentments, and lack of change are indirectlyresponsible for those diseases which bring about the end, in themajority of cases. ⶠmartial, classical music and ballads arefavorites with the osseous. old-time tunes and songs appeal to him strongly.

jazz, which the alimentive loves, is dislikedby most bony people. reading he prefers ⶠonly a few kinds of reading, a few favoritesubjects and a few favorite authors are indulged in by this type. he will read as long as twenty-five yearson one subject, master it and ignore practically everything else. when hebecomes enamored of an author he reads everything he writes. reading that points directly to some particularthing he is really interested in makes up many of his books andmagazines.

he is the kind of man who reads the same newspaperfor half a century. ⶠhis great endurance, capacity for withstandinghardship, indifference to weather, and his sane, under-eating habitsare the chief physical assets of this type. ⶠthis type has no physical characteristicswhich can be called liabilities except the tendency to chronicdiseases. even in this he runs true to form--slow to acquire and slowto cure. ⶠhiking and golf are the favorite sportsof this type because these demand no sudden spurts of energy. he likesthem because they can be

carried on with deliberation and independence.he does not care for any sport involving team work or quick responsesto other players. except when combined with the thoracic type he especiallyavoids tennis. favorite entertainments ⶠserious plays in which his favorite actorsappear are the entertainments preferred by this type. hecares least of all for vaudeville. ⶠthe osseous has no traits which can properlybe called social assets. his general uprightness comes nearest to standinghim in good stead

socially, however. ⶠstiffness, reticence, physical awkwardnessand the inability to pose or to praise are the chief social handicapsof this type. ⶠthe osseous is not emotional and can notbe said to possess any assets that are purely emotional. ⶠthe lack of emotional fervor and enthusiasmprevents this type from impressing others. ⶠkeeping his word, orderliness and systemare the chief business assets of this type.

ⶠa disinclination to mix, the inabilityto adapt himself to his patrons and a tendency to hold people too rigidlyto account are the business handicaps of the osseous. ⶠconstancy and faithfulness are his chiefdomestic assets. domestic weaknesses ⶠtightness with money, a tendency to betoo exacting and dictatorial, and to fail to show affection are the thingsthat frequently prevent marriage for the osseous and endanger it whenhe does marry. ⶠthe osseous should aim at being more adjustableto people and to his

environment in general. he should try to takea greater interest in others and then _show_ it. ⶠindifference and the display of it, solitudeand too few interests are things the osseous needs to avoid. his strong points ⶠdependability, honesty, economy, faithfulnessand his capacity for finishing what he starts are the strongestpoints of this type. his weakest points ⶠstubbornness, obstinacy, slowness, over-cautiousness,coldness and a

tendency to stinginess are the weakest linksin people of the extreme osseous type. ⶠthere is little to be done with the osseouswhen you meet him socially except to let him do what he wants to do. don't interfere with him if you want him tolike you. ⶠas an employee, give him responsibilityand then let him alone to do it his way. then keep your hands off. don't give him constant advice; don't tryto drive him.

let him be as systematic as he likes. when dealing with him in other business waysrely on him and let him know you admire his dependability. _remember, the distinguishing marks of theosseous, in the order of their importance, are proportionately largebones for the body, prominent joints and a long face. any personwho has these is largely of the osseous type no matter what other typesmay be included in his makeup._ chapter v

the cerebral type "the thinker" all those in whom the nervous system is morehighly developed than any other are cerebrals. this system consists of the brain and nerves.the name comes from the cerebrum or thinking part of the brain. meditation, imagining, dreaming, visualizingand all voluntary mental processes take place in the cerebrum, or brain,as we shall hereinafter call it. the brain is the headquarters ofthe nervous system--its "home

office"--just as the stomach is the home officeof the alimentive system and the heart and lungs the home office ofthe thoracic. your freight system ⶠthe thoracic system may be compared toa great freight system, with each of its tributaries--from the main trunkarteries down to the tiniest blood vessels--starting from the heartand carrying its cargo of blood to every part of the body by means ofthe power furnished by the lungs. your telegraph system

ⶠbut the nervous system is more like anintricate telegraph system. its network of nerves runs from every outlyingpoint of the body into the great headquarters of the brain, carryingsense messages notifying us of everything heard, seen, touched, tasted orsmelled. as soon as the brain receives a message fromany of the five senses it decides what to do about it and if actionis decided on, sends its orders back over the nerve wires to the musclestelling them what action to perform. your working agents

ⶠthis latter fact--that the muscles arethe working agents of the body--also explains why the muscular typeis naturally more active than any of the others. source of your raw materials ⶠthe body may be compared to a perfectlyorganized transportation system and factory combined. the alimentivesystem furnishes the raw materials for all the systems to work on. stationary equipment ⶠthe bones of the body are like the telegraphpoles, the bridges and

structures for the protection and permanenceof the work carried on by the other systems of the body. now poles, bridges and structures are lessmovable, less alterable than any of the other parts of a transportationsystem, and likewise the bony element in man makes him less alterable inevery other way than he would otherwise be. a predominance of it in anyindividual indicates a preponderance of this immovable tendency inhis nature. mind and matter are so inseparably bound uptogether in man's organism that it is impossible to say just where mindends and matter begins. but

this we know: that even the mind of the bonyperson partakes of the same unbending qualities that are found in thebones of his body. "every cell thinks" ⶠthomas a. edison, as level-headed and unmysticala scientist as lives, says, "every cell in us thinks." human analysisproves to us that something very near this is the case for itshows how the habitual mental processes of every individual are always"off the same piece of goods" as his body. [illustration 9: cerebral the "thinker"]

thus the fat man's mind acts as his body acts--evenly,unhurriedly, easefully and comfortably. the florid man'smind has the same quickness and resourcefulness that distinguish all hisbodily processes. the muscular man's mind acts in the same strenuousway that his body acts, while the bony man's brain always has an immovablequality closely akin to the boniness of his body. he is not necessarily a "bonehead," but thisphrase, like "fathead," is no accident. the large head on the small body

ⶠas pointed out before, the larger any organor system the more will it tend to express itself. so, the large-headed,small-bodied man runs more to mental than to physical activities, andis invariably more mature in his thinking. (see chart 9) conversely, thealimentive type gets its traits from that elemental stage in humandevelopment when we did little but get and assimilate food, and when thinkingwas of the simplest form. in those days man was more physical than mental;he had a large stomach but a small head. so today we see in the pure alimentive typepeople who resemble their

alimentive ancestors. they have the same proportionatelylarge stomach and proportionately small head,--with thestomach-system dominating their thoughts, actions and lives. the cerebral is the exact opposite of this.he has a top-heavy head, proportionately large for his body, and aproportionately undeveloped stomach system. his small assimilative system ⶠthe extreme cerebral differs from othertypes chiefly in the fact that while his head is unusually large comparedto the body, his alimentive,

thoracic, muscular and bony systems are smallerand less developed than the average. the latter fact is due to thesame law which causes the alimentive to have a large body and a smallhead. nature is a wonderful efficiency engineer. she provides only asmuch space as is required for the functioning of any particular organ, givingextra space only to those departments that need it. the cerebral-alimentive is the combinationwhich makes most of the "magnates" and the self-made millionaires.such a man has all the alimentive's desires for the luxurious comfortsand "good things of

life," combined with sufficient brains toenable him to make the money necessary to get them. nature doesn't give the pure alimentive alarge skull because he doesn't need it for the housing of his proportionatelysmall brain, but concentrates on giving him a big stomach fittedwith "all modern conveniences." on the other hand, the headof the cerebral is large because his brain is large. the skull whichis pliable and unfinished at birth grows to conform to the size and shapeof the brain as the glove takes on the shape of the hand inside it.

stomach vs. brain ⶠbecause the alimentive and cerebral systemsare farthest removed from each other, evolutionally, a large brain anda large stomach are a very unusual combination. such an individual wouldbe a combination of the alimentive and cerebral types and would havethe alimentive's fat body with a large highbrow head of the cerebral.the possession of these two highly developed but opposite kinds of systemsplaces their owner constantly in the predicament of decidingbetween the big meal he wants and the small one he knows he should havefor good brain work.

we are so constructed that brain and stomach--eachof which demands an extra supply of blood when performing itswork--can not function with maximum efficiency simultaneously. why light lunches ⶠwhen your stomach is busy digesting a bigmeal your brain takes a vacation. this little fact is responsiblefor millions of light luncheons daily. the strenuous manual workercan empty a full dinner pail and profit by it but the brain workerlong ago discovered that a heavy midday meal gave him a heavy brain forhours afterwards.

clear thinking and a clear stomach ⶠclear thinking demands a clear stomachbecause an empty stomach means that the blood reserves so necessary to vividthinking are free to go to the brain. without good blood coursing ata fairly rapid rate through the brain no man can think keenly or concentratedly.this explains why you think of so many important things whenyour stomach is empty that never occur to you when your energy is beingmonopolized by digestion. heavy dinners and heavy speeches ⶠall public speakers have learned that aheavy dinner means a heavy

speech. elbert hubbard's rule when on his speakingtours was one every orator should follow. "ten dollars extra if i haveto eat," said fra elbertus--a far cry from the days when we"fed up" the preacher at sunday dinner with the expectation of hearinga better sermon! uses his head ⶠjust as assimilation is the favorite activityof the alimentive type, head work is the favorite activity of thelarge-headed cerebral. he is so far removed, evolutionally, from the stomachstage that his stomach

is as much a remnant with him as the brainis a rudiment with the extreme alimentive. the extra blood supply which nature furnishesto any over-developed part of the body also tends to encourage him inthinking, just as the same condition encourages the fat man in eating. forgets to eat ⶠan alimentive never forgets dinner time. but the cerebral is so much more interestedin food for his brain than food for his body that he can go without hismeals and not mind it. he

is likely to have a book and a cracker athis meals--and then forget to eat the cracker! physical sensitivity ⶠwe are "mental" in proportion to the sensitivenessof our mental organization. the cerebral possesses the mosthighly developed brain center of any type and is therefore more sensitiveto all those stimuli which act upon the mind. his whole body bespeaks it. the fineness ofhis features is in direct contrast to some of the other types. the unusualsize of his brain

denotes a correspondingly intricate organizationof nerves, for the nerves are tiny elongations of the brain. the intellectual sensitiveness of any individualcan be accurately estimated by noting the comparative size ofhis brain and body. his triangular head and face ⶠa triangle is the geometrical figure approximatedby the cerebral's front face and head. if he is a pure, extreme cerebral a triangleis again what you are reminded of when you look at his head fromthe side, for his head stands

on a small neck, his forehead stands out atthe top, while his back head is long. these bring the widest part of hishead nearer the top than we find it in other types. delicate hands ⶠa thin, delicate hand denotes a larger-than-averagecerebral element. (see chart 10) smooth fingers ⶠwhat have long been known as "smooth fingers"are typical of the cerebral. these are not to be confused withthe fat, pudgy babyish

fingers of the alimentive, for though thelatter's fingers are smooth around, they do not present straight outlinesat the sides. they puff out between the joints. smooth fingers are characteristic of the extremecerebral type. they are called this because their outlines run straightup and down. the joints of the alimentive finger (see chart2) mark the narrowest places owing to the fact that the joints arenot changeable. in the osseous fingers (see chart 8) the oppositeis true. the joints mark the widest spots and the spaces between aresunken.

[illustration 10: a: typical cerebral faceb: typical cerebral hand] the fingers of the thoracic are inclined tobe pointed like his head, while the muscular's fingers are square atthe end and look the power they possess. ⶠbut the cerebral has fingers unlike anyof these. there is no fat to make them pudgy and no muscle to make themfirm. neither are there large joints to make them knotty. their outlinestherefore run in almost straight lines and the whole hand presentsa more frail, aesthetic meditation his keynote

ⶠthinking, contemplating, reflecting--allthe mental processes coming under the head of "meditation"--constitutethe keynote of this type. the alimentive lives to eat, the thoracicto feel, the muscular to act, the osseous to stabilize, but the cerebrallives to meditate. air castles ⶠhe loves to plan, imagine, dream day-dreams,visualize and go over and over in his mind the manifold possibilities,probabilities and potentialities of many things. when he carries this to extremes--as the personwith a huge head and

tiny body is likely to do--he often overlooksthe question of the practicability of the thing he is planning.he inclines to go "wild-catting," to dream dreams that are impossibleof fruition. thought for thought's sake ⶠhe will sit by the hour or by the day thinkingout endless ultimates, for the sheer pleasure it gives him. othermen blame him, criticise him and ridicule him for this and for the mostpart he does fail of the practical success by which the efficient americanmeasures everything. but the fact must never be forgotten thatthe world owes its progress to

the men who could see beyond their nose, whocould conceive of things no one had ever actually seen. this type, more than any other, has been theinnovator in all forms of human progress. the dreamer ⶠ"everything accomplished starts with thedream of it," is a saying we all know to be true. yet we go on forevergiving all the big prizes to the doers. but the man who can only dreamlives in a very hostile world. his real world is his thoughts but wheneverhe steps out of them into

human society he feels a stranger and he isone. doesn't fit ⶠthe world of today is ruled by people whoaccomplish. "putting it over," "delivering the goods," "getting itacross," are a part of our language because they represent the standardsof the average american today. the cerebral is as much out of place in suchan environment as a fish is on dry land. he knows it and he shows it.he doesn't know what the other kind are driving at and they know so littleof what he is driving at

that they have invented a special name forhim--the "nut." doing isn't his line. he prefers the pleasuresof "thinking over" to all the "putting over" in the world. this typeusually is a failure because he takes it all out in dreaming without everdoing the things necessary to make his dream come true. a "visionary" ⶠthese predilections for overlooking theobvious, the tangible and the necessary elements in everyday existence tendto make of the cerebral what he is so often called--a "visionary."

for instance, he will build up in his mindthe most imposing superstructure for an invention and confidentlytell you "it will make millions," but forget to inform himself onsuch essential questions as "will it work?" "is it transportable?" or"is there any demand for it?" ahead of his time ⶠ"he was born ahead of his time" appliesoftenest to a man of this he has brains to see what the world needsand not infrequently sees how the world could get it. but he is so averseto action himself that unless active people take up his schemes theyseldom materialize.

what we owe to the dreamers ⶠmen in whom the cerebral type predominatedanticipated every step man has made in his political, social, individual,industrial, religious and economic evolution. they have seen it decadesand sometimes centuries in advance. but they were always ridiculed atfirst. the mutterings of morse ⶠhistory is replete with the stories ofunappreciated genius. in washington, d. c., you will have pointed outto you a great elm, made historic by samuel morse, inventor of thetelegraph. he could not make

the successful people of his day give hima hearing, but he was so wrapped up in his invention that he used tosit under this tree whenever the weather permitted, and explain all aboutit to the down-and-outers and any one else who would stop. "listen tothe mutterings of that poor old fool" said the wise ones as they hurriedby on the other side of the street. but today people come from everywhereto see "the famous morse elm" and do homage to the great mind thatinvented the telegraph. "langley's folly" ⶠtoday we fly from continent to continentand air travel is superseding

land and water transportation whenever greatspeed is in demand. a man receives word that his child is dangerouslyill; he steps into an airplane and in less than half the time itwould take trains or motors to carry him, alights at his own door. commerce, industry, war and the future ofwhole nations are being revolutionized by this man-made miracle. yetit is but a few short years since s. p. langley was sneered at from oneend of this country to the other because he stooped to the "folly" ofinventing a "flying machine." the trivial telephone

ⶠalexander graham bell invented the telephone.but it was many years before he could induce anybody to financeit, though some of the wealthiest, and therefore supposedly wisest,business men of the day were asked to do so. none of them would riska dollar on it. even after it had been tested at the centennial expositionin philadelphia and found to work perfectly, its possibilitieswere so little realized that for a long while no one could be found tofurnish the funds necessary to place it upon the market. the wizardry of wireless

ⶠthen after the world had become accustomedto transacting millions of dollars worth of business daily over the oncedespised telegraph and telephone it took out its doubts on marconiand his "wireless telegraphy." "it's impossible," they said."talk without wires? never!" but now the radio needles pierce the bluefrom san diego to shanghai and from your steamer in mid-ocean you can saygood night to your loved one in denver. frank bacon's play ⶠideas always have to go begging at first,and the greater the idea the

rougher the sledding. the most successful play ever put on in americawas "lightnin'," written by frank bacon, a typical ran every night for three years in new york city. it has made a millionpeople happy and a million dollars for its sponsors. but when mr. bacon,who also plays the title role, took it to the new york producers theyrefused it a try-out. but because he had faith in his dream and persisted,his name and his play have become immortal. an ideal combination

ⶠthe ideal combination is a dreamer whocan do or a doer who knows the power of a dream. thinking and acting--almostevery individual is doing too much of one and too little of the other! the world's two classes ⶠthe world is divided roughly into thesetwo classes: those who act without thinking (and as a result are oftenin jail); and those who think without acting (and as a result areoften in the poorhouse). to be a success ⶠto be a successful individual today youhave got to dream and then do;

plan and then produce; contemplate and thenconstruct; think it out and then work it out. if you do the latter at the expense of theformer you are doomed to work forever for other people, to play some otherman's game. if you do the former at the expense of the latter you aredoomed to know only the fringes of life, never to be taken seriouslyand never to achieve. pitfalls for dreamers ⶠif you are inclined to take your pleasureout in cerebrating instead of creating; if it suffices you to see a thingin your imagination

whether it ever comes to pass or not, youare at a decided disadvantage in this hustling world; and you will neverbe a success. pitfalls for the doer ⶠon the other hand if you are content todo what other men dream about and never have dreams of your own you willprobably always have a berth but will never have a million. you will existbut you will never know what it is to live. the hungry philosopher ⶠthe extreme cerebral can sit on a parkbench with an empty purse and

an empty stomach and get as much pleasureout of reflecting on the "whichness of the what and the whithernessof the wherefore" as an alimentive gets out of a planked steak. needlessto say, each is an enigma to the other. yet most people imaginethat because both are human and both walk on their hind legs they arealike. they are no more alike than a cow and a canary. his frail body ⶠthe extreme cerebral type finds it difficultto do things because, as we have seen, he is deficient in muscle--oneof the vital elements upon

which activity and accomplishment are based.this type has little muscle, little bone, and little fat. deficient in "horse power" ⶠhe is not inactive for the same reasonthat the alimentive is; his stomach processes do not slow him down. buthis muscles are so undeveloped that he has little inward urgetoward activity and little force back of his movements. his heart andlungs are small, so that he also lacks "steam" and "horse power." he prefers to sit rather than to move, exactlyas the muscular prefers

to be "up and doing" rather than to sit still. the man of futile movements ⶠdid you ever look on while a pure cerebralman tried to move a kitchen stove? ever ask the dreamer in your houseto bring down a trunk from the attic? will you ever forget the almost human perversitywith which that stove and that trunk resisted him; or how amusingit looked to see a grown man outwitted at every turn by an inert mass? "i have carried on a life-long feud with inanimatethings," a pure

cerebral friend remarked to us recently. "ihave a fight on my hands every time i attempt to use a pair of scissors,a knife and fork, a hammer or a collar button." his jerky walk ⶠbecause he is short the cerebral takesshort steps. because he lacks muscle he lacks a powerful stride. as a resulthe has a walk that is irregular and sometimes jerky. when he walks slowly this jerk is not apparent,but when hurried it is quite noticeable.

is lost in chairs ⶠthe cerebral gets lost in the same chairthat is itself lost under the large, spreading osseous; and for the samereason. built for the average, chairs are as much too large forthe cerebral as they are too small for the big bony man. so the cerebral'slegs dangle and his arms don't reach. dislikes social life ⶠthough a most sympathetic friend, the cerebraldoes not make many friends and does not care for many. he istoo abstract to add to the

gaiety of social gatherings, for these arebased on the enjoyment of the concrete. enjoys the intellectuals ⶠreaders, thinkers, writers--intellectualslike himself--are the kinds of people the cerebral enjoys most. another reason why he has few friends is becausethese people, being in the great minority, are not easy to find. ignores the ignorant ⶠpeople who let others do their thinkingfor them and those who are not

aware of the great things going on in worldmovements, are not popular with this type. he sometimes has a secretcontempt for them and ignores them as completely as they ignore him. avoids the limelight ⶠmodesty and reserve, almost as marked inthe men as in the women, characterize this extreme type. they do thingsof great moment sometimes--invent something or write somethingextraordinary--but even then they try to avoid being lionized. they prefer the shadows rather than the spotlight.thus they miss many

of the good things less brainy and more aggressivepeople gain. but it does no good to explain this to a cerebral.he enjoys retirement and is constantly missing opportunities because herefuses to "mix." cares little for money ⶠfriends mean something to the cerebral,fame sometimes means much but money means little. in this he is the exactopposite of the osseous, to whom the pecuniary advantages or disadvantagesof a thing are always significant. the pure cerebral finds it difficult to interesthimself in his

finances. he seldom counts his change. hewill go away from his room leaving every cent he owns lying on the dresser--andthen forget to lock the door! this type of person almost never asks fora raise. he is too busy dreaming dreams to plan what he will do inhis old age. he prefers staying at the same job with congenial associatesto finding another even if it paid more. very often poor ⶠsince we get only what we go after in thisworld, it follows that the

cerebral is often poor. to make money onemust want money. competition for it is so keen that only those who wantit badly and work with efficiency ever get very much of it. the cerebral takes so little interest in moneythat he gets lost in the shuffle. not until he wakes up some morningwith the poorhouse staring him in the face does he give it serious consideration.and then he does not do much about it. almost never rich ⶠhistory shows that few people of the purecerebral type ever became

rich. even the most brilliant gave so muchmore thought to their mission than the practical ways and means that theywere usually seriously handicapped for the funds necessary to itsmaterialization. madame curie, co-discoverer of radium, saidto be the greatest living woman of this type, is world-famous and hasdone humanity a noble service. but her experiments were always carriedon against great disadvantages because she had not the financialmeans to purchase more than the most limited quantities of the precioussubstance. about clothes

ⶠclothes are almost the last thing the cerebralthinks about. as we have seen, all the other types have decidedpreferences as to their clothes--the alimentive demands comfort, thethoracic style, the muscular durability and the osseous sameness--butthe extreme cerebral type says "anything will do." so we oftensee him with a coat of one color, trousers of another and a hat of another,with no gloves at all and his tie missing. often absent-minded ⶠwe have always said people were "absent-minded"when their minds were

absent from what they were doing. this oftenapplies to the cerebral for he is capable of greater concentration thanother types; also he is so frequently compelled to do things in whichhe has no interest that his mind naturally wanders to the things he caresabout. a cerebral professor whom we know sometimesappeared before his harvard classes in bedroom slippers. a thoracic wouldnot be likely to let his own brother catch him in his! writes better than he talks ⶠthe poor talker sometimes surprises usby being a good writer. such a

one is usually of the cerebral type. he likes to think out every phase of a thingand put it into just the right words before giving it to the, many a cerebral who does little talking outside his intimate circledoes a good deal of surreptitious writing. it may be only thekeeping of a diary, jotting down memoranda or writing long letters tohis friends, but he will write something. some of the world's greatest ideashave come to light first in the forgotten manuscripts of people ofthis type who died without showing their writings to any one. evidentlythey did not consider them

of sufficient importance or did not care asmuch about publishing them as about putting them down. an inveterate reader ⶠstep into the reference rooms of your citylibrary on a summer's day and you will stand more chance of findingexamples of this extreme type there than in any other spot. you may have thought these extreme types aredifficult to locate, since the average american is a combination. butit is easy to find any of them if you look in the right places.

in every case you will find them in the veryplaces where a study of human analysis would tell you to look forthem. where to look for pure types ⶠwhen you wish to find some pure alimentives,go to a restaurant that is famous for its rich foods. when you wantto see several extreme thoracics, drop into any vaudeville show andtake your choice from the actors or from the audience. when you arelooking for pure musculars go to a boxing match or a prize fight and youwill be surrounded by them. when looking for the osseous attend a conventionof expert accountants,

bankers, lumbermen, hardware merchants orpioneers. all these types appear in other places andin other vocations, but they are certain to be present in large numbersany day in any of the above-named places. but when you are looking for this interestinglittle extreme thinker-type you must go to a library. wespecify the reference room of the library because those who search for fiction,newspapers and magazines are not necessarily of the puretype. and we specify a day in summer rather than in winter so that you willbe able to select your

subjects from amongst people who are therein spite of the weather rather than because of it. interested in everything ⶠ"i never saw a book without wanting toread it," said a cerebral friend to us the other day. this expressesthe interest every person of this type has in the printed page. "i neversee a library without wishing i had time to go there and stay tilli had read everything in it." the book worm

ⶠso it is small wonder that such a one becomesknown early in life as a "book worm." as a little child he takes readilyto reading and won't take to much else. because we all learn quicklywhat we like, he is soon devouring books for older heads. "why won'the run and play like other children?" wails mother, and "that boy oughtto be made to join the ball team," scolds father; but "that boy" continuesto keep his nose in a he can talk on almost any subject--when hewill--and knows pretty well what is going on in the world at an age whenother boys are oblivious to everything but gymnasiums and girls.

old for his years ⶠthe "little old man" or "little old woman"of ten is always a cerebral child. the alimentives are the babies of therace and never entirely grow up no matter how many years they live.but the cerebral is born old. from infancy he shows more maturity thanother children. the "teacher's pet" ⶠhis studiousness and tractableness leadto one reward in childhood, though it often costs him dear as a man. heusually becomes the teacher's favorite and no wonder: he alwayshas his lessons, he gives

her little trouble and is about all that keepsmany a teacher at her poorly paid post. little sense of time ⶠthe extreme cerebral often has a deficientsense of time. he is less conscious of the passage of the hours thanany other type. the muscular and the osseous often have an almost uncannytime-sense, but the extreme cerebral man often lacks it. forgetting towind his watch or to consult it for hours when he does, is a familiar habitof this type. we know a bride in detroit whose flat lookedout on a bakery and a

bookstore. she told us that she used to sendher cerebral hubby across the street for the loaf of bread that wasfound lacking just as they were ready to sit down to dinner--only towait hours and then have him come back with a book under his arm, no breadand no realization of how long he had been gone. inclined to be unorthodox ⶠother types tend to follow various religions--accordingto the individual's upbringing--but the cerebralcomposes a large percentage of the unorthodox.

the political reformer ⶠbecause all forms of personal combat aredistasteful to him the pure cerebral does not go out and fight for reformas often as the muscular nor die for causes as often as the osseoustypes. but almost every cerebral believes in extremereforms of one kind or another. he is a comparatively silent butfaithful member of clubs, leagues and other kinds of reform organizations.he may never star in them. he seldom cares to. but his mite isalways ready when subscriptions are taken, even if he has togo without breakfast for a

week to make up for it. this type is usually sufficiently intelligentto know the world needs reforming and sufficiently conscientious towant to help to do it. he is not bound by traditions or customs as muchas other types but does more of his own thinking. without the foresightand faithfulness of the cerebrals very few reforms could have startedor have lived to finish. the social nonconformist ⶠask any small-bodied, large-headed manif he believes in the double standard of morals, anti-suffrage, eternalpunishment, saloons, or the

"four hundred!" this little man with the bighead may not openly challenge you or argue with you when you standup for "things as they are," for he is a peaceable chap--but he inwardlysmiles or sneers at what he considers your troglodyte ideas. hesees a day coming when babies will be named for their fathers whetherthe minister officiated or not; when the man who now talks about the"good old days of a wide open saloon on every corner" will himselfbe a hazy myth; and when society idlers will not be considered betterthan people who earn their livings.

the world's pathfinder ⶠthe cerebral therefore leads the worldin ideas. the world is managed by fat men, entertained by florid men, builtby muscular men, opposed by bony men, but is improved in the final analysisby its thinking men. these thinkers have a difficult time of it.they preach to deaf ears. and often they die in poverty. but at lastposterity comes around to their way of thinking, abandons the old rutsand follows the trails they have blazed. therefore many great thinkerswho were unknown while alive became famous after death. more often thannot, "fame is the food of

the tomb." indifference to surroundings ⶠa wise man it was who said, "let me seea man's surroundings and i will tell you what he is." the cerebral doesnot really live in his house but in his head, and for that reasondoes not feel as great an urge to decorate, amplify or even furnishthe place in which he dwells. step into the room of any little-bodied large-headedman and you will be struck by two facts--that he has fewer jimcracksand more journals lying around than the rest of your friends.

in the room of the alimentive you will findcushions, sofas and "eats;" in that of the thoracic you will find colorful,unusual things; the muscular will have durable, solid, plain things;the osseous will have fewer of everything but what he does havewill be in order. but the pure cerebral's furnishings--if heis responsible for them--will be an indifferent array, with no two piecesmatching. furthermore, everything will be piled with newspapers,magazines, books and clippings. often die young

ⶠ"the good die young" is an old saying whichmay or may not be true. but there is no doubt that the extreme cerebraltype of individual often dies at an early age. the reason is clear. an efficient but _controlled_assimilative system is the first requisite for long life, andthe pure cerebral does not have an efficient one. moreover, he is proneto neglect what nutritive mechanism he does have, by irregular eating,by being too poor to afford wholesome foods, and by forgetting to eatat all. ⶠby reason of his deficient physicalitythe cerebral can not be said to

possess any decided physical assets. but twotendencies which help decidedly to prolong life are under-eatingand his refusal to dissipate. it has been said many times by the best knownexperts that "more deaths are caused annually in america by over-eatingthan by any other two causes." under-eating is a very necessaryprecaution but the cerebral carries it too far. the cerebral, lacking a large alimentary system,is not tempted to overload his stomach or overtax his vitalorgans. and because he is a highly evolved type, possessing little ofthe instincts which are at the

bottom of most dissipation, he is not addictedto late hours, wine, women or excitement. ⶠnervous diseases of all kinds most frequentlyafflict this type. his nervous system is supersensitive. it breaksdown more easily and more completely than that of the more elementaltypes, just as a high-powered car is more easily wrecked than a truck. ⶠ"highbrow" music is kept alive mostly byhighbrows. while the other types cultivate a taste for grand opera orsimulate it because it is supposedly proper, the cerebral really enjoysit. in the top gallery at

any good concert you will find many cerebrals. ⶠthe serious drama and educational lecturesare other favorite entertainments of the cerebral. he cares littlefor vaudeville, girl-shows, or clap-trap farces. the kind of program that keeps the fat man'ssmile spread from ear to ear takes the cerebral to the box office forhis money. a steady patron at the movies ⶠthe cerebral goes to the movies more thanany other type save the fat man, but not for the same reasons. the large-brained,small-bodied man

cares nothing for most of the recreationswith which the other types amuse themselves, so the theater is almosthis only diversion. it is oftentimes the only kind of entertainmentwithin the reach of his purse; and it deals with many different subjects,in almost all of which the pure cerebral has some interest. don't laugh at same things ⶠbut if you will notice next time you goto a movie it will be clear to you that the fat people and the large-headedpeople do not laugh at the same things. the pie-throwing and cutey coquettethat convulse the

two-hundred-pounder fail to so much as turnup the corners of the other man's mouth. and the subtle things that amuse the cerebralgo over the heads of the pure alimentives. cares for no sports ⶠbut the fat man and the large-brained manhave one trait in common. neither of them cares for strenuous sports.the fat man dislikes them because he is too "heavy on his feet." thecerebral dislikes them because he is too heavy at the opposite extremity.he expends what

little energy he has in mental activitiesso has none left for violent physical exertion. likes mental games ⶠthis type enjoys quiet games requiringthought. chess and checkers are favorites with them. the impersonal ⶠthe cerebral is the most impersonal ofall types. while the alimentive tends to measure everything from the standpointof what it can do for him personally, the cerebral tends to thinkmore impersonally and to be

interested in many things outside of his ownaffairs. lacks pugnacity ⶠprimitive things of every kind are distastefulto the cerebral. the instincts of digestion, sex, hunting and pugnacityare but little developed in him. he is therefore a man wholikes harmony, avoids coming to blows, and goes out of his way to keepthe peace. such a man does not go hunting and seldom owns a gun. he dislikesto kill or harm any creature. the cleverest crook

ⶠthe cerebral is usually a naturally moralperson. but when lacking in conscience, either through bad training orother causes, he occasionally turns to crime for his income. this is becausehis physical frailty makes it difficult for him to do heavy work,while his mentality enables him to think out ways and means of gettinga living without it. though the clumsy criminal may belong to anytype, the cleverest crooks--those who defy detection for years--alwayshave a large element of the cerebral in their makeup. big brains in little jobs

ⶠthere are two kinds of work in the world--headwork and hand work; mental and manual. if you can star in either,life guarantees you a good living. but if you are good at neither youare doomed to dependence. the cerebral's physical frailty unfits himfor the manual and unless he is school-or self-educated he becomes thesorriest of all human misfits. he falls between the two and leads a precariousexistence working in the lighter indoor positions requiring the leastmentality. if you will keep your eyes open you will many times note thatthe little waiter in the high class restaurant or hotel has a headvery large for his body. such

men are much better read, have a far greaterappreciation of art and literature and more natural refinement thanthe porky patrons they serve. ⶠa fine sense of the rights of others andnatural modesty and refinement are the chief social assets ofthis type. ⶠlack of self-expression, too great reserveand too much abstractness in conversation are the things that handicapthe cerebral. his small stature and timid air also add to his appearanceof insignificance and cause him to be overlooked at social affairs.

ⶠsympathy, gentleness and self-sacrificeare other assets of this type. ⶠa tendency to nervous excitement and toa lack of balance are the chief emotional handicaps of this type. ⶠthis type has no traits which can properlybe called business assets. he dislikes business, is repelled by its standardsand has no place in any of its purely commercial branches. ⶠhis inability to "keep his feet on theground," and his tendency to "live in the clouds" and to be generally impracticalunfit this type for business life.

ⶠtenderness, consideration and idealismare the chief domestic assets of the cerebral type. ⶠinability to provide for his family, incapacityfor making the money necessary to meet their needs, and his tendencyto spend the little he does have on impossible schemes, are whatwreck the domestic life of many splendid cerebral men. her inabilityto make one dollar do the work of two is a serious handicap to the cerebralwife or mother. ⶠthis man should aim at building up hisbody and practicalizing his mental processes.

ⶠthe cerebral should avoid shallow, ignorantpeople, speculation and those situations that carry him farther awayfrom the real world. ⶠhis thinking capacity, progressiveness,unselfishness, and highly civilized instincts are the strongest pointsof this type. ⶠimpracticality, dreaminess, physical frailtyand his tendency to plan without doing, are the traits which standin the way of his success. ⶠdon't expect him to be a social lion. don'texpect him to mingle with many. invite him when there are to be a fewcongenial souls, and if he wanders into the library leave him alone.

ⶠdon't employ this man for heavy manuallabor or where there is more arm work than head work. give him mental positionsor none. if you are dealing with him as a tradesman,resist the temptation to take advantage of his impracticality and don'ttreat him as if you thought money was everything. _remember, the chief distinguishing marksof the cerebral, in the order of their importance, are the high foreheadand a proportionately large head for the body. any person who has theseis largely of the cerebral type no matter what other types may be includedin his makeup._

to understand combinations determine which type predominates in a subject. if there is any doubt in your mind about thisdo these four things: 1st. note the body build--which one of thefive body types (as shown in charts 1, 3, 5, 7, 9) does he most resemble?(in doing this it will aid you if you will note whether fat, bone ormuscle predominates in his bodily structure.) 2nd. decide which of the five typical faceshis face most resembles. 3rd. decide which of the five typical handshis hands most resemble.

4th. if still undecided, note his voice, gesturesand movements and they will leave no doubt in your mind as to whichof these types comes first and which second. having decided which type predominates andwhich is second in him, the significance of this combination is made clearto you by the following law: law of combination ⶠthe type predominating in a person determineswhat he does throughout his life--the nature of his main activities.

the type which comes second in developmentwill determine the way he does things--the methods he will follow indoing what his predominant type signifies. the third element, if noticeable, merely "flavors"his personality. thus, a cerebral-muscular-alimentive doesmental things predominantly throughout his life, but in a more muscularway than if he were an extreme cerebral. the alimentive element,being third down the list, will tend to make him eat and assimilate morefood than he otherwise would.

chapter vi types that should and should not marry eachother "i am so sorry to hear the browns are beingdivorced. i have known george and mary for years and they are as fine aman and woman as i ever saw. but they just don't seem able to get alongtogether." how many times you have heard something likethis. and the speaker got nearer the truth than he knew. for the georgesand marys everywhere are, on the whole, fine men and women. married to the wrong one

ⶠeach one is all right in himself, but merelymarried to the wrong person--a fact we have recognized when bothgeorge and mary made successes of their second ventures and livedhappily ever after. human happiness, as we have noted in the introductionto this volume, is attained only through _doing what the organismwas built to do, in an environment that is favorable_. marriage isonly the attempt of two people to attain these two ends individually,mutually and simultaneously. difficulties of double harness

ⶠnow, since it is almost impossible forone to achieve happiness when untrammeled and free, is it to be wonderedat that so few achieve it in double harness? for the difficulties to besurmounted are doubled and the helps are halved by the presence of arunning mate. mere marriedness is not mating ⶠthat "two can live on less than one" isnot true--but it is nearer the truth than that two can find ultimate happinesstogether easier than either can find an approximation of happinessalone. this is not saying that any one who is unmatedcan have happiness as

complete as that which comes to the rightlymated--for nothing else in life can compare with that--but they mustbe rightly mated, not merely _married_. no one who has observed or thought on thissubject will deny that it is a thousand times better not to be marriedat all than to be married to the wrong person. secrets told by statistics ⶠsurveys of the causes for divorce duringthe past ten years in the united states have revealed some startlingfacts--facts which only prove

again that human analysis shows us the truthabout ourselves as no science has ever shown it to us before. one of the most illuminating facts these surveyshave revealed is that _only those men and women can be happy togetherwhose natures automatically encourage each other in thedoing of the things each likes to do, in the way each likes to do them_. inborn inclination determines the things everyhuman being prefers to do, concerning all the fundamental activitiesof his life, and also the manner in which he prefers to do them. theseinborn inclinations, as we

have previously pointed out, are written allover us in the unmistakable language of type. when we know a man's type we know what thingshe prefers to _do_ in life's main experiences and _how_ he prefersto do them. and we know that unless he is permitted to do approximatelywhat he _wants_ to do in approximately the _way_ he prefers, he becomesunhappy and unsuccessful. infatuation no guide ⶠthese biological bents are so deeply embeddedin every individual that no amount of affection, admiration, or respect,or passion for any other

individual suffices to enable any one to gothrough long years doing what he dislikes and still be happy. onlyin the first flush of infatuation can he sacrifice his own preferencesfor those of another. after a while passion and infatuation oozeaway. nature sees to that, just as she sees to their coming in the firstplace. then there return the old leanings, preferences, tendenciesand cravings inherent in the type of each. the real "reversion to type" ⶠunder this urge of his type each revertsgradually but irresistibly to

his old habits, doing largely what he prefersto do in the ways that are to his liking. when that day comes the realtest of their marriage begins. if the distance between them is toogreat they can not cross that chasm, and thereafter each lives a lifeinwardly removed from the other. they make attempts to cross the barrier andsome of these are successful for a short while. they talk to and fro acrossthe void sometimes; but their communings become less frequent, theirvoices less distinct, until at last each withdraws into himself. therehe lives, in the world of his

own nature--as completely separated from hismate as though they dwelt on different planets. we can know ⶠ"but how is one to know the right person?"you ask. by recognizing science's recent discovery to the effect thatcertain types can travel helpfully, happily and harmoniously togetherand that certain others never can. what every individual owes to himself ⶠevery individual owes it to himself tofind the right work and the

right mate, because these are fundamentalneeds of every human being. lacking them, life is a failure; possessingbut one of them, life is half a failure. to obtain and apply the very fullest knowledgetoward the attainment of these two great requisites should be the aimof every person. neglected subjects ⶠdespite the fact that these are the mostvital problems pertaining to human happiness and that every individual'slife depends for its glory or defeat, joy or sorrow upon the right settlementof them--they are two

of the most neglected. divorce courts ⶠour divorce courts are full of splendidmen and women who are there not because they are weak or wrong, but becausethey stepped into nature's age-old instinct trap without realizingwhere it would lead these men and women who pay so heavy a pricefor their ignorance and blindness are _not_ to blame. most of themhave been taught that to be legally bound together was sufficient guaranteeof marital bliss. but experience has shown us that there arecertain kinds of people each

individual can associate with in harmony andthat there are those with whom he could never be happy though a hundredministers pronounced them mated for life. times will change ⶠbut the time is coming when we will selectour mates scientifically, not merely sentimentally. it is also comingwhen we will know what every child is fitted to do by looking at him, justas we know better today than to set a shepherd dog on the trail ofcriminals or a bloodhound to herd sheep.

the great quest ⶠinstead of beclouding the significanceand the sanity of life's great quest; instead of encouraging every mannerof mismating as we do today, we will some day arm our children with knowledgeenabling them to wisely choose their life work and their life mate. dolly's dimple ⶠthe fact that dolly has a dimple may makeyour senses whirl but it is not sufficient basis for marriage. there arethings of vastly greater importance, though of course this does notseem possible to you at the

sammy's smile ⶠand though sammy sports a smile the godsmight envy, he may not be the right man for dolly. even a smile that nevercomes off, great lubricator that it undeniably is, is not sufficientfoundation for a "till-death-do-us-part" contract. little things vs. big things ⶠwhen we hear of a divorce we assume thatit was caused by the inability of those two people to agree uponfundamentals. we suppose that they found within themselves wide divergencesof opinion, feeling

or attitude regarding really worth while questions--social,religious, political or economic. we are inclined toimagine that "the little things" should take care of themselves andthat only the "big things" such as these should be allowed to separatetwo lives, once they have been joined together. what the records show ⶠyet the exact opposite is what happens,according to the divorce records of the united states. these records show that divorces do not ariseout of differences in what

we have always called the big things of life,but out of those things which we have always called the little ones. why he can't change ⶠwe do not expect a husband or wife to changehis religion and take on his partner's faith. we imagine this is aninherent thing more or less deeply imbedded in him and not to be altered,while we consider it only fair and right for john to give up his favoritesport, his hobby and some of his habits for mary's sake. at the risk of shocking the supersensitive,it must be admitted that

most individuals get their religious leaningsfrom external sources--parents, teachers, ministers, friendsand especially by the accident of being born in a certain country,among a certain sect or within a certain community. on the other hand, one's preferences in thematter of diversions are born in him, part and parcel of his very beingand remain so to the end of his life. accordingly, just as it is easierto change the frosting on a cake than to change the inside, it is easierto change a man's religion than to change his activities.

diversion and divorce ⶠmost of the divorces granted in americaduring the past ten years have been demanded, not on grounds dealing withthe so-called fundamentals, but for differences regarding so-called unimportantthings. and more than seventy out of every hundred divorcesevery year in this country are asked for on grounds pertaining to _diversion_. in other words, more than seventy per centof american divorces are granted because husbands and wives can notadapt themselves to each other in the matter of how they shall spendtheir leisure hours.

"people who can not play together will notwork together long," said elbert hubbard. human analysis, which showsthat each type tends automatically to the doing of certain thingsin certain ways whenever free to act, proves that this is just as literalas it sounds. the only time we are free to act is duringour leisure hours. all other hours are mortgaged to earning a living--inthe accomplishment of which we often have very little outlet for naturaltrends. so it is only "after hours" and "over sundays" that themasses of mankind have an opportunity to express their real natures.

uncongenial work affects marriage ⶠthe less one's work permits him to do thethings he enjoys the more surely will he turn to them in the hours whenthis restraint is removed. if such a one has a husband or wifewho encourages him in the following of his natural bents during leisurehours, that marriage stands a big chance of being happy. these two people may differ widely in theirrespective religious ideas--one may be a catholic, the other aprotestant, or one a shaker and the other a christian scientist--but theycan build lasting

happiness together. on the other hand, two people who agree perfectlyas to religious, social and political views but who can notagree as to the disposition of their leisure hours are bound for the rocks. as the honeymoon fades, each reverts to thekind of recreation congenial to his type. if his mate is averse to hisdiversions each goes his own way. the eternal triangle ⶠthe tragedy of "the other man" and "theother woman" is not a mystery

to him who understands human analysis. itis always the result of finding some one of kindred standards andtastes--that is, some one whose type is congenial. the eternal trianglearises again and again in human lives, not accidentally, but as theinevitable result of violating inexorable laws. law of marital happiness ⶠmarriage should take place only betweenthose whose first type-elements are sufficiently similar forthem to enjoy the same general diversions, yet whose second type-elementsare sufficiently

dissimilar to make each strong where the otheris weak. ⶠthe application of the law to each of thefive types will be explained in the following sections of this chapter. * * * * * part one the alimentive in love ⶠjust as each type reacts differently toall the other situations in life, each reacts differently to love. the alimentive, as we have pointed out, isless mature than the other

types, with the thoracic next, and so on downto the cerebral which is the most mature of all. because the alimentivehas rightly been called "the baby of the race;" because no extremelyfat person ever really grows up, this type prefers those love-expressionsnatural to the immature. the most affectionate type ⶠcaressing, petting, fondling and cuddling--thosedemonstrations not of wild passion but of affection such as childrenenjoy--are most often used by alimentive men and women when in love.

ⶠbecause they are inclined to bestow littleattentions more or less promiscuously, they often get the reputationof being flirtatious when they are not. such actions also are oftentaken by the one to whom they are directed as indicating more than the givermeans. so beware of taking the little pats of fatpeople too seriously. they mean well, but have the baby's habit of bestowinginnocent smiles and caresses everywhere. why they are loved ⶠeach type has traits peculiar to itselfwhich tend to make others fall

in love with it. in the alimentive the outstandingtrait which wins love is his sweet disposition. the human ego is so constituted that we tendto like all interesting people who do not offer us opposition. thealimentive is amenable, affable, agreeable. his ready smile, his tendencyto promote harmony and his general geniality bring him love and keepit for him while more clever types lose it. millionaires marry them ⶠ"why does a brilliant business man marrythat little fat woman who is

not his equal mentally?" the world has askedmany a time. human analysis answers it, as it answers so many of the otherage-long queries about human eccentricities. ⶠthe little fat woman has a sweet disposition--oneof the most soothing of human attributes. the business man hasenough of "brilliant" people all day. when he gets home he is rather inclinedto be merely the "tired business man," and in that state nothing ismore agreeable than a wife with a smile. ⶠas for fat husbands, many a wife supportsthem in preference to being

supported by another and less agreeable man. the prettiest type ⶠwhen a woman becomes engaged her friendsall inquire, "what does he do?" but when a man's engagement is announcedevery one asks, "what does she look like?" so it is small wonder thatmen have placed prettiness near the top of the list, and the alimentivewoman is the prettiest of all types. this little fact must not be overlookedwhen searching for the causes which have prompted so many ofthe world's wealthiest men to marry them. other men may have to contentthemselves with plain wives,

but the man of means can pick and choose--andevery man prefers a pretty wife to a plain one. feminine prettiness (not beauty) consistsof the rose-bud mouth, the baby eyes, the cute little nose, the roundcheeks, the dimpled chin, etc.--all more or less monopolized by thealimentive type. the "womanly" type ⶠthe fat woman's refusal to worry keepsthe wrinkles away and as long as she does not become obese she remains attractive.her "clinging-vine" ways make men call her the most "womanly"type, and even when she tips

the scales at two hundred and fifty they arestill for her. then they say "she looks so motherly." so the fat woman goes through life more lovedby men than any other type, and in old age she presents a pictureof calmness and domestic serenity that is appealing to everybody. marry earliest and oftenest ⶠbeing in demand, the alimentive woman marriesearlier than any other type. as a widow the same demand takes heroff the marriage market while younger and brainier women pine their livesaway in spinsterhood.

look back and you will recall that it wasthe pretty, plump girls who had beaux earliest, married earliest, andwho, even when left with several children, did not remain widows long. desirable traits of alimentive wives ⶠnext to her sweet disposition, the traitswhich make the alimentive wife most pleasant to get along with are serenity,optimism and good cooking. her weaknesses ⶠmany an alimentive wife loses her husband'slove because of her too

easy-going habits. unless controlled, theselead to slovenliness in personal appearance and housekeeping. the alimentive wife and money ⶠthe alimentive wife usually has her shareof the family income because she has the endearing ways that wring it outof hubby. sales people everywhere say, "we like to seea fat woman coming, for she usually has money, spends it freely and iseasy to please." in disagreements ⶠwhat they do with their quarrels afterthey are through with them

determines to a great extent the ultimatesuccess of any pair's marriage. alimentive husbands and wives burythe hatchet sooner than other types and they avoid altercations. lives anywhere ⶠthe alimentive wife offers less resistanceto her husband's plans than any other. so when he announces they are movingto some other neighborhood, city or state she acquiesceswith better grace than other types. family friends

ⶠthe responsibility of adding new friendsto the family rests equally upon each partner in marriage. the averagehusband, by reason of mingling more with the world, has the greateropportunity, but every wife can and should consider that she owesit to herself, her husband and her children to contribute her quota. alimentive husbands and wives add their shareof new acquaintances to any marriage in which they are partners. thealimentive wife always enjoys having people in to dinner and thealimentive husband enjoys bringing them. the warmth of hospitality inalimentive homes brings them

more friendships than come to other types. fat man also marries young ⶠthe fat man marries young, but for a differentreason than the fat woman. the fat man, as you will note, "getsa job" early in life. from that time on his services seldom go begging. he makes a good salary earlier than othertypes and is therefore sooner in a position to marry. the "ladies' man" ⶠjust as the fat woman is "a man's woman,"so the fat man is almost

invariably "a ladies' man." the fat man usually"knows women" better than any other type and it is certain thatthe fat woman "knows men." her record proves it. no fat bachelors ⶠjust as there are few fat "old maids,"there are few fat bachelors. you can count on the fingers of one hand allthe really overweight ones you ever knew. the best "provider" ⶠbecause he makes money easily through thevarious forms of his

superior business qualifications, the averagefat man has plenty of money for his family and likes to spend itupon them. he is the best provider of all the types. fat people arethe most lenient parents and usually over-indulge their children. the husband who makes a habit for years ofsending home crates of the first strawberries, melons and oranges ofthe season is a fat one every desirable traits of fat husbands ⶠhis generous provision for his family andthe fact that he is essentially a "family man" are two desirabletraits of the alimentive

husband. he depends more on his home thanother types, he marries young to have a home and he is seldom farther awayfrom it than he has to be. it is unfortunate that the one type whichmakes the best "travelling man" is more inconvenienced by the absencefrom home than any other type would be. but he has not submitted silently.all the world knows what a "hard life" the traveling salesman leads andhow he misses "the wife, the kids and the good home cooking." weaknesses of alimentive husbands ⶠthe alimentive husband has but one weaknessthat materially endangers

his marital happiness. he is inclined to betoo easy and extravagant, and not to save money. mates for alimentives ⶠbecause of his amenability the alimentivecan marry almost any type and be happy. but for fullest happiness, thosewho are predominantly alimentive--that is, those in whom the alimentivetype comes first--should marry, as a first choice, thosewho are predominantly muscular. the muscular shares the alimentive'sambition to "get on in the world" and at the same time adds to theunion the practicality which

offsets the too easy-going, lackadaisicaltendencies of the alimentive. the second choice for the predominantly alimentiveshould be the one who is predominantly thoracic. these two typeshave much in common. the brilliance and speed of the thoracic keepsthe alimentive "looking to his laurels," and thus tends to prevent thecarelessness which is so great a handicap to the predominantly alimentive. the third choice of the predominantly alimentivemay be one who is also predominantly alimentive, but in that caseit should be an alimentive-muscular or an alimentive-cerebral.

the last type the pure alimentive should evermarry is the pure cerebral. part two love and the thoracic ⶠthe thoracic in love exhibits the samegeneral traits which characterize him in all his other relationships. the most beautiful woman ⶠthe thoracic woman is the most beautifultype of all. she is not "pretty" like the alimentive, but her refinedfeatures and beautiful

coloring give her a distinctive appearance. the handsomest man ⶠthe thoracic is also the handsomest manof all. he is tall, high-chested, wide-shouldered and has themasculine face resulting from his high-bridged, prominent nose and highcheek bones. the thoracic charmer ⶠthe thoracic has more of that quality wecall "charm" than any other type. charm is largely self-expression bytactful methods. since this type is the most self-expressive and the mosttactful it possesses

naturally this invaluable trait. both men and women of this type have an elusive,attractive something in their personalities that others do not have--avery personal appeal that makes an immediate impression. it piercesfarther beneath the surface of strangers than other types do on much longeracquaintance. the thoracic does not seem a stranger at all. his own confidences,given to you almost immediately upon meeting you, removethe barriers. the lure of the thoracic ⶠthere is about the thoracic person a lurethat others seldom have. you

do not attempt to describe it. you say "heis just different," and he is. no other type has his spontaneity andinstantaneous responsiveness. so while the alimentive is always liked, itis in a more mild, easy, comfortable way. the alimentive does not stirthe blood but has a strong, tender, even hold on people. the thoracic,on the other hand, intrigues your attention, impales it, andholds it. love at first sight ⶠthe thoracics fall in love at first sightmuch more often than other types. they also cause others to fall in lovewith them without

preliminaries, for they pursue the objectof their affections with a fire and fury that is almost irresistible. ⶠhundreds of persons marry each year whohave known each other but a few days or weeks. in every instance you willfind that one of them is a thoracic--and usually both. no other typecan become so hopelessly in love on such short notice. the most flirtatious ⶠthe thoracic is a born philanderer. he does not mean to mislead or injure, butflirtation is second nature

to him. this comes from the fact that flirtation,more than any other human experience, contains that adventurous,thrilling element he desires. overheard in transit ⶠwe overheard the following conversationin the street car the other day between two young women who occupied theseat in front of us: "i was sorry to hurt him," explained the thoracic."i did love him last week and i told him so, but i don't love him anymore and i do love somebody else now." she really loved him--last week!

thoracics can have a severe case of love,and get just as completely over it in a week as the rest of us get overthe measles. the joy of life ⶠa joy in living expresses itself in almosteverything the thoracic does, especially when he is young. such peopleappear almost electrical. these are traits of great fascination andthe thoracic uses them freely upon others throughout his life. always blushing ⶠhis over-developed circulatory system causesthe thoracic to blush

easily and often. this tendency has long beencapitalized by women but is not so much enjoyed by men. most easily hurt ⶠbecause of his supersensitiveness the thoracic'sfeelings are more easily hurt than those of other types, asevery one who has ever had a florid friend or sweetheart will remember. they forgive quickly and completely, but everylittle thing said, looked, or acted by the loved one is translatedin terms of the personal. bony people especially find it difficultto understand or be

tolerant of this trait in the thoracic, becauseit is the exact opposite of themselves. they call the thoracic "thin-skinned,"and the thoracic replies that the bony man has "a skin likea walrus." and each is right from his own viewpoint. the chivalrous thoracic man ⶠwith his keen intuitions, his sense ofthe fitness of things and his trigger-like adeptness, the thoracic man easilybecomes an attentive and chivalrous companion. where the bony man is often oblivious to thefine points of courtesy,

the thoracic anticipates his friend's everywish and movement, picks up her handkerchief almost before she has droppedit, opens doors instantaneously and specializes in those gracesdear to the heart of woman. he is likely to do as much for the very nextlady he meets just as soon as he meets her. these ready courtesies costthe thoracic husband as many explanations as the caressing habit coststhe alimentive. breaches of promise ⶠmore bona fide breach of promise suitsare brought against the

thoracic man than any other. he thinks rapidly,speaks almost as quickly as he thinks and about what he thinks. consequently many an honorable man has awakenedsome morning to find he has to "pay the piper" for an impulsive proposalmade to a girl he would not walk across the street now to see. many a girl, too, when she is "in love withlove" promises to marry, and the next day wonders what made her do it. this is the type of chameleon-like girl whosevagaries and "sweet uncertainties" form the theme of many shortstories, in most of which

she is pictured as "the eternal feminine." she gets much attention ⶠnevertheless, many a man prefers this creatureof "a million moods" to the staid and sedate girl of other the thoracic girl seldom lacks for attention. she does not have asmany intimate friends as the fat girl, for she is less comforting, andcomfort is one of the first requisites of friendship. but she has a longerline of beaux dancing attendance upon her, sending her flowers,candy and messages. the stunning girl

ⶠanother reason why the thoracic girl hasmore attention from men is that she is the most smartly-gowned of allthe types. the new, the extreme, the "very latest" in women's clothesare first seen on the thoracic girl. she is the type men call "stunning." men prefer companions who appear well--whomother men admire. the thoracic woman demands the same of the menshe goes about with, and for these two reasons many thoracics marry thosein whom their own type predominates. the "merry widows"

ⶠmake a note of the "dashing widows," youhave known--those who were called "the merry widows"--and you will recalla large thoracic element in each. for this type of woman, unlike the home-keepingalimentive, enjoys being a widow and remains one. she usually has manychances to remarry but her changeable, gaiety-loving nature revels inthe freedom, sophistication and distinction of widowhood. the appearance of endless youth given by heralive, responsive personality deceives the most discerning asto her age. the woman of

fifty who enthralls the youths of twenty-fiveis usually of the thoracic refuses to grow old ⶠthis woman refuses to grow old, just asthe alimentive refuses to grow up. she clings to her beauty as does no othertype. she it is who self-sacrificingly starves herself to retainher slenderness, who massages and exercises and "cold-creams" herselfhours a day before the shrine of eternal youth. her high color, "allher own," is a decided asset in this direction. this woman devotes as much attention to hergrooming at sixty as the

alimentive does at twenty. for this reasonyou may any day see two women of forty together, one an alimentive and theother a thoracic--and take the plump one to be several or many yearsolder than the florid one. love the "bright lights" ⶠthoracic men and women care more about"the bright lights" than other types. the alimentive likes what he calls"a good time"--with fun and plenty of "refreshments"--but the thoracic'sidea of a good time usually includes a touch of "high life." this all comes from his love of thrill andnovelty and is innocent

enough. but it leads to misunderstandingsand broken homes unless the thoracic marries the right type of person. ⶠthe osseous, for instance, has nothingin his consciousness by which to understand the desire for excitement whichis so strong in the thoracic. we have all known good wives andloving mothers whose marital happiness was destroyed because they couldnot compel themselves to lead the drab existence laid out for them by theirbony, stony husbands. in many cases the wife, who only wanted a littleinnocent fun, was less to blame than her unbending spouse.

why she went insane ⶠone day several years ago we drove up toa lonely farmhouse in montana just as a tragedy was enacted. the motherwas being taken to the state asylum for the insane. the seven little childrenwatched the strange performance, unable to understand what hadhappened. the father, a tall, raw-boned, angular man was almost as mystifiedas the children. "crazy?" he said, "i don't believe it. say,what did she have to go crazy about? she hasn't seen anything to exciteher. why, she's not been off this farm for twenty years!"

the "gay devil" husband ⶠthe same thing happens every day betweensevere, bony wives and their florid, frolicking husbands. "she is a perfecthousekeeper and a good wife" exclaim her friends--"why should herhusband spend his evenings away from home?" these questions will continueto be asked until we realize that being "a good housekeeper anda good wife" does not fill the bill with a thoracic man. a wife who willleave the dinner dishes in the kitchen sink occasionally and run awaywith him for a "lark" on a moment's notice is the kind that retains thelove of her florid husband.

a husband who is willing to leave his favoritemagazine, pipe, and slippers to take her out in the evening isthe kind a thoracic woman likes. she even prefers a "gay devil" to a"stick"--as she calls the slow ones. makes him jealous ⶠthe thoracic man wants his wife to lookwell and be pleasing but no husband wants his wife to be irresistiblyattractive to other men. so it often happens that the thoracic woman causesher husband much jealousy. her youthful actions and distinctive dressingmake her a magnet for all

eyes. if he happens to be too different intype to understand her naturalness and pure-mindedness in this heoften suffers keenly. sometimes he causes _her_ to suffer for itwhen they get home. human analysis makes us all more tolerantof each other. it enables us to know why people act as they do, and, bestof all, that they mean well and not ill most of the time. dislikes the monotonous ⶠthe thoracic, you will remember, dislikesmonotony. everything savoring of routine, sameness--the dead level--wearson him.

three meals a day three hundred and sixty-fivedays in a year, with the same person, in the same room, at the sametable, is unspeakably irksome to him. he may love that other person withcompleteness and constancy, but he occasionally demands what bernard shawcalls "domestic change of air." "my wife's gone to the country," was the biggestsong hit of its year because there were so many florid men whounderstood just how that man felt! ⶠthe florid wife is as loving as any otherbut she heaves a sigh of

relief and invites her women friends in fora party when john goes away on business. not easy to live with ⶠthoracic husbands or wives are not as easyto live with as the alimentive. they are too affectable, too susceptibleto sudden changes of mood. they live alternately on the crestof the wave and in the depths, and rob the home of that serenitywhich is essential to harmony. impulsive tendencies which made the sweetheartadorable are less

attractive in the wife. and hubby's hair-triggertemperament she now calls just plain temper. desirable traits of thoracics ⶠthat they are the most charming in manner,the most tasteful in dress and the most entertaining of any type constitutethe traits which make the thoracic husband or wife desirable andattractive. live beyond means ⶠhusbands and wives of this type presentthis marital problem however: they tend to live beyond their means. thehusband in such a case seldom

confides the true state of his financial affairsto his wife while the thoracic wife, bent on making the best possibleappearance, finds it almost impossible to trim down expendituresto fit the family purse. the habit of entertaining extravagantly andalmost constantly also costs the thoracic household dear. ⶠthe desire on the part of a thoracic husbandor wife to move frequently from that particular house, neighborhood,or city presents another difficulty. should marry own type

ⶠfor the reasons stated above and throughoutthis work, the predominantly thoracic person should marryhis own type as first choice. no other can understand his impulsiveness. his second choice should be a person predominantlyof the alimentive type. the alimentive is more like the thoracicthan any other, and in the places where they differ the alimentivegives in with better grace than other types. the third choice may be a predominantly muscularperson. in the latter case, however, the muscular should have eitherthoracic or alimentive

tendencies combined with his muscularity. because they are so different as to be almostopposites, and therefore unable to understand each other, the lastperson the thoracic should marry is the osseous. part three marriage and musculars ⶠthe muscular does not marry early likethe alimentive nor hastily like the thoracic. his is a practical nature andhis practicality is expressed here as in everything else. backof his marriage you will

often find some of the same practical reasonsthat prompt his other activities. marries between twenty-five and thirty-five ⶠmost musculars are still unmarried at twenty-fivewhen their alimentive friends have families and whentheir thoracic ones have had a divorce or two. but few musculars are unmarriedat thirty-five, though at that age their osseous and cerebral friendsare often still single. the muscular does not marry on nothing, andas he does not star in any line of work as early in life as the alimentiveor thoracic he does not

have the means to marry as early in life asthey. but he is a splendid worker, gets something to do and does it fairlywell. the alimentive spends too much on food andother comforts and the thoracic too much on luxuries, but the muscular,while not mercenary, saves a larger portion of his income. make "sensible" marriages ⶠso at somewhere around thirty the muscularis prepared to establish a home. by that time he has lived past the rashstage and selects a mate as much like himself as possible, in ordernot to be thwarted in his

aims for "getting somewhere in the world"--aimswhich dominate this type all his life. a mate for wearing qualities ⶠthis type selects his mate as he selectshis clothes--for wearing quality. he prefers plain, simple people,for he is plain and simple himself. they are not carried off their feetby impulse as are some of the other types. they therefore choose wivesand husbands whose lovable qualities show signs of durability. the most positive lover

ⶠthe muscular makes love almost as strenuouslyas he does everything else. he does not do it especially gracefullylike the thoracic, nor caressingly like the alimentive, but intenselyand in dead earnest. he does not cut short the courtship like thethoracic, nor extend it for years like the osseous, but marries as soonas the practical requirements can be met. the alimentive is the most affectionate inlove and the thoracic the most flirtatious, but the muscular is themost positive. the fatal handicap

ⶠthe muscular has more strong traits thanany other type from the marital point of view, but he has one weaknessof such magnitude that it often counterbalances them. his pugnacitycauses him to give way frequently to violent outbursts of them he says bitter things that are almost impossible to forgive. this type's chief handicap in all his relationsis his tendency to fight too quickly, to say too much when angry, andthus to make enemies. in marriage this is a serious handicap whichloses many an otherwise ideal husband or wife the chance for happiness.

another muscular trait which makes life difficultfor his mate is his tendency to be so generous with outsidersthat his family suffers. also this type of husband or wife is inclinedto sacrifice the social side of family life to work and thus widenthe distance between husband and wife as the years go on. desirable traits ⶠworking capacity, generosity and squarenessare qualities making for the success of the muscular marriage. the muscular wife, more often than any other,helps earn the living when

things go wrong financially. the muscular usually dislikes flirtationsand gives his mate little anxiety on this score. mates for musculars ⶠthe muscular has four choices in the selectionof a mate. there is but one type he should never marry and that isthe osseous. the stubborness of the osseous, when pitted against the muscular'spugnacity, causes constant warfare. the predominantly muscularperson should choose a mate who is also predominantly muscular. no othertype aids him in the

practical affairs of the family's future.but it is well for him when this muscular has decided cerebral tendencies.second choice for the muscular is a mate predominantly cerebral.the muscular in this case furnishes the brawn to work out the plansmade by the brain of the cerebral, and the combination is one thatstands a good chance of happiness. third choice is the thoracic, andfourth choice the alimentive. part four the osseous in love

ⶠbring to mind all the men and women youhave known who waited ten, twenty or thirty years for the one they hadgiven their hearts to. you will recall that they all had large bonesor large joints for their bodies. such people are always predominantlyosseous. the loved one may marry but the bony man orwoman remains faithful; it must be the one they want or none. the riddle solved ⶠthis fact accounts for some of the incongruousmatches in middle or later life of old friends who seem to be unfittedto each other. often

one of them has waited many years for theother to consent, for children to grow up, or for death to clear the way. one lover through life ⶠosseous men and women are so constitutedthat it is practically impossible for them to love many times duringa lifetime. bony people, even when young, have fewer sweetheartsthan other types. the large-boned boy or girl is usually illat ease in the presence of the other sex, avoids social affairs, anddoes not attract love as early in life as other types do.

they suffer keenly from the near-ostracismresulting from this, but are powerless to change it. live apart from others ⶠbecause they live more or less apart fromtheir fellows, even as children, and tend to withdraw into themselves,the osseous see little of the other sex, learn little about it andcome to think of it as unapproachable. as we have seen, the alimentive feels at easewith the other sex, the thoracic charms them, the muscular cultivatesthem when he is in

earnest, but the osseous avoids them. if hedoes not marry he becomes more and more awkward in their presence ashe grows older. such a person will often go a block out of his way to avoidmeeting a person of the opposite sex. marries less often ⶠthis naturally leads to the unmated lifewhich characterizes so many men and women of the osseous type. we asked you to recall the one or two alimentivebachelors and spinsters you ever knew, the three or fourthoracics and the not more

than half a dozen musculars who didn't marry.but it will take some time to enumerate the osseous people you know whohave never married. this type constitutes a very large proportion ofthe unmarried. most difficult to live with ⶠwhen the osseous does marry he is the mostdifficult of all types to live with, because he is inclined to be immovableand unbending. to give and take has long been consideredthe secret of happy marriage and certainly is one of them. but this typefinds it almost impossible to adapt himself to his mate. he wants everythingin a certain way at a

certain time and for a certain purpose. whoeveropposes him is pretty ruthlessly handled. another marital liability of this type ishis disinclination and inability to make new friends. he contributesto the family circle only those few intimates he has had for years. likes to dominate ⶠthe osseous is inclined to dominate andoften to domineer over his mate and over his family in general. thisis as true of the women as of the men. as we have seen, type and not sexis what causes the big

distinctions between people. the hen-pecked husband ⶠwhenever you see a hen-pecked husband lookat his wife. you will always find that she has either large joints,large bones or a square jaw. many times we have heard men declare "theywould show such a wife how to act," but unless they could change her boninessthey would find it difficult to "show her" much of anything. the reason the husband of such a woman seldomresists is because he is

nine times out of ten an alimentive or a cerebral--typesthat prefer to be bossed rather than to boss. the same combination is usually present whenthe husband dominates the wife. he is almost invariably bony and sheis either alimentive or cerebral. and other women say, "i'd like toshow such a husband what i would do if he tried to tyrannize over meas he does over her!" but such a woman often prefers a husband who relievesher of the responsibility of decisions, and two such people sometimeslead surprisingly happy lives together.

mates for the osseous ⶠtherefore the type best fitted to livein harmony with the predominantly osseous is the predominantlyalimentive. second choice is the predominantly cerebral, for the reasonsstated above. there is no third choice. the pure osseous and pure thoracic shouldnot marry because they are too far removed from each other in all their tendenciesever to understand each other. the one type the pure osseous should nevermate with is his own. nothing

but trouble results when two of the extremebony type marry, for each has definite views, desires and preferences--andneither can give in. part five love and the cerebral ⶠthe cerebral type takes most of his loveout in dreaming. he is as impractical about his affections as aboutall else and often nothing but hopes come of it. next to the osseous he marriesless frequently than any other type. head and heart in the clouds

ⶠthe cerebral often remains single becausehe can not come down to earth long enough to propose, or if he doeshe is so gentle and timid about it the girl is afraid to trust her lifeto him. timidity his curse ⶠtimidity costs the cerebral man most ofthe good things he could otherwise get out of life. he is almost afraidto fall in love, afraid to speak after he does and afraid to facethe hostile world with two lives on his hands. women like him

ⶠthe average woman likes the cerebral typeof man but seldom loves or adores him. his helplessness appeals to hermotherly sympathy. can not buffet the world ⶠbut women are afraid to marry the extremetype even when the feeling he prompts is more than mere protectiveness.they know he can not buffet the world for them and their offspring. so, even when they love him best they usuallymarry the fat salesman, the muscular worker who always has a goodjob, the thoracic promoter who promises luxury, or the osseous man whowon't take "no" for an

answer. always leap year for him. ⶠwhen this type of man does marry it isoften due as much to her proposal as his. he is especially aided inhis courtship if "she" happens to be a quick-spoken thoracic, a straight-from-the-shouldermuscular, or one of those determined osseous girls. the much-loved cerebral woman ⶠthe cerebral woman is more fortunate inachieving marriage than the cerebral man. the impracticality which soseriously handicaps him, since

the husband is supposed to support the family,is not quite so much of a handicap to her. men who love her at all, love her for hertenderness, conscientiousness and delicacy and deem it a pleasure to workfor her, and she is one type of woman who usually appreciates it. the cerebral's weaknesses ⶠthe tendency to dream his life away insteadof doing tangible things that assist in the progress of the familyis the greatest marital handicap of the cerebral type.

inability to make money results directly fromthis, and since money is so important in the rearing and educatingof children, those who can not get it are bound to face hardship and disillusionment. the saddest sight ⶠthe most pathetic sight to be seen anywhereis that of the delicate, intellectual man who loves his family dearly,has the highest ideals and yet is unable to provide for them. when love flies out the window ⶠ"when poverty comes in the door love fliesout the window" is a saying

as old as it is sad. ⶠand it is as true as it is both old andsad. despite the philosophers--who are all cerebralsthemselves!--love should grow in sheltered soil, protected from thebuffetings of wind and storm. without means no man can provide this protection.happy marriage, as we have seen, is based on the cultivation ofthe strong points and the submergence of the weak ones of each partner.poverty does more to bring out the worst in people and conceal the bestthan anything else in the world. so, although this type is high-minded,more idealistic in his

love than any other type and has fewer ofthe lower instincts, he makes less of a success of marriage than any othertype. mates for the cerebral ⶠbecause he lives in his mind and not inhis external world the predominantly cerebral must marry one whoalso is predominantly the reading of books, attendance at good plays,and the study of great movements constitute the chief enjoymentsof this type and if he has a mate who cares nothing for these things hismarriage is bound to be a failure.

the cerebral he marries should, however, beinclined to the muscular also. second choice for this type is the predominantlymuscular and third choice is the osseous. the firmness of thelatter is often a desirable element in the combination, for the cerebraldoes not mind giving the reins over to his osseous mate; he does notlike driving anyhow. the last type of all for the pure cerebralto marry is the pure alimentive because it is farthest removedfrom his own type. these two have very little in common.

_remember, in marriage, type is not a substitutefor love. both are essential to ideal mating. people contemplatingmatrimony are like two autoists planning a long journey together,each driving his own car. whether they can make the same speed,climb the same grades "on high" and be well matched in general,depends on the type of these two cars. but it takes love to supplythe gas, the self-starters and the spark plugs!_ chapter vii vocations for

each type "fame and failure" the masses of mankind form a vast the very tip-top peak are gathered the few who are famous. in the bottomlayer are the many failures. between these extremes lie all therest--from those who live near the ragged edge of down-and-out-landto those who storm the doors of the house of greatness. again, between these, and making up the largemajority, are the myriads of laborers, clerks, small business men, housekeepers--thatmyriad-headed mass known as "the back bone

of the world." yet the great distance from the lower layerto the tip-top peak is not insurmountable. many have covered it almostovernight. a favorite fallacy ⶠfor fame is not due, as we have been ledto believe, solely to years of plodding toil. a thousand years of laborcould never have produced an edison, a marconi, a curie, a rockefeller,a roosevelt, a wilson, a bryan, a ford, a babe ruth, a carpentier,a mary pickford, a caruso, a spencer or an emerson.

fame's foundation ⶠthe reserved seat in the tip-top peak ofthe pyramid is procured only by him who has _found his real vocation_. to such a one _his_ work is not hard. no hoursare long enough to tire his body; no thought is difficult enough toweary his mind; to him there is no day and no night, no quitting time,no saturday afternoons and no sundays. he is at the business for which hewas created--and all is play. edison sleeps four hours

ⶠthomas a. edison so loves his work thathe sleeps an average of less than four hours of each twenty-four. whenworking out one of his experiments he forgets to eat, cares not whetherit is day or night and keeps his mind on his invention until it isfinished. yet he has reached the age of seventy-fourwith every mental and physical faculty doing one hundred per centservice--and the prize place in the tip-top peak of the wizards ofthe world is his! he started at the very bottom layer, an orphan newsboy.he made the journey to the pinnacle because early in life he found hisvocation.

failures who became famous ⶠeach one of the world's great successeswas a failure first. it is interesting to note the things at whichsome of them failed. darwin was a failure at the ministry, forwhich he was educated. herbert spencer was a failure as an engineer, thoughhe struggled years in that profession. abraham lincoln was such a failureat thirty-three as a lawyer that he refused an invitation to visitan old friend "because," he wrote, "i am such a failure i do not dareto take the time." babe ruth was a failure as a tailor. hawthornewas a failure as a custom

house clerk when he wrote the "scarlet letter."theodore roosevelt was a failure as a cowboy in north dakota and gaveup his frontiering because of it. these men were failures because they triedto do things for which they were not intended. but each at last foundhis work, and when he did, it was so easy for him it made him famous. play, not work, brings fame ⶠfame comes only to the man, or woman, wholoves his work so well that it is not work but play. it comes only tohim who does something with

marvellous efficiency. work alone can notproduce that kind of efficiency. outdistancing competition ⶠfame comes from doing one thing so muchbetter than your competitors that your results stand out above and beyondthe results of all others. any man who will do efficiently any one ofthe many things the world is crying for can place his own price upon hiswork and get it. he can get it because the world gladly pays for whatit really wants, and because the efficient man has almost no competition.

efficiency comes from enjoyment ⶠbut here's the rub. you will never do anythingwith that brilliant efficiency save what you like to do. efficiencydoes not come from duty, or necessity, or goading, or lashing, or anythingunder heaven save enjoyment of the thing itself. nothing less will ever release those hiddenpowers, those miraculous forces which, for the lack of a better name,we call "genius." knowing what are _not_ your vocations ⶠelimination of what are distinctly notyour vocations will help you

toward finding those that are. to that endhere are some tests which will clear up many things for you. they willhelp you to know especially whether or not the vocations you have beencontemplating are fitted to you. how to test yourself ⶠwhenever you are considering your fitnessfor any vocation, ask yourself these questions: _self-question 1--am i considering this vocationchiefly because i would enjoy the things it would bring--such as salary,fame, social

position or change of scene?_ if, in your heart, your answer is "yes," thisis not a vocation for the movie hopeful ⶠthe above test can best be illustratedby the story of a young woman who wanted to be told that she had abilityto act. "i am determined to go into the movies," she told us. "do youthink i would be a success?" "when you picture yourself in this professionwhat do you see yourself doing?" we asked. "oh, everything wonderful," she replied. "isee myself driving my own

car--one of those cute little custom-madeones, you know--and wearing the most stunning clothes and meeting allthose big movie stars--and living all the year round in california!" "is that all you ever see yourself doing?"we inquired. "yes--but isn't that enough?" "all but one--the acting." she then admitted that in the eight yearsshe had been planning to enter the movies she had never once really visualizedherself acting, or studying any part, or doing any work--nothingbut rewards and

emoluments. pleasure or pay? _self-question 2_--_knowing the requirementsof this vocation--its tasks, drudgeries, hours of work, concentrationand kind of activity--would i choose to follow them inpreference to any other kind of activity even if the income were thesame?_ _would i do these things for the =pleasure=of doing them and not for the =pay=?_ if, in your heart, you can answer "yes" tothese questions, your problem

is settled; you will succeed in that vocation.for you will so enjoy your work that it will be play. being play,you will do it so happily that you will get from it new strength eachday. because you are doing what you were builtto do, you will think of countless improvements, inventions, ways ofmarketing them. this will promote you over the others who are thereonly for the pay envelope; it will raise your salary; it will eventuallyand inevitably take you to the top. a man we know aptly illustrates this point.he was a bookkeeper. he had

held the same position for twenty-three yearsand was getting $125 a month. he had little leisure but used allhe did have--evenings, saturday afternoons, sundays and his ten-dayvacations--making things. in that time he had built furniture for hissix-room house--every kind of article for the kitchen, bathroom and porch.and into everything he had put little improving touches such as arenot manufactured in such we convinced him that his wife was not theonly woman who would appreciate these step-saving, work-reducing,leisure-giving conveniences. he finally believed it enoughto patent some of his

inventions, and today he is a rich man. of "your own accord" ⶠone more question will shed much lighton the matter of your talents. here it is: _self-question 3_--_do i tend to follow, ofmy own accord, for the sheer joy of it, the =kinds of activity= demandedby this vocation which i am contemplating?_ if you do not you will never succeed in thisline of work. thought it would do him good

ⶠone incident will serve to illustrate theforegoing test. a young man asked us if he could succeed as a public speaker.he had decided to become a lecturer and had spent two yearsstudying for that work. "do you enjoy talking? do you like to explainand expatiate? when out with others do you furnish your share of theconversation or a little more?" were the questions we put to him. to all of the questions he answered "no." "but i thought this was just the line of worki ought to go into," he explained, "i have always been diffident andi thought the training

would do me good." life pays the producer ⶠexpecting the world to pay you handsomelywhile remaking you is short-sighted, to say the least. the publicschools are free, like life's education, but you don't get a salaryfor attending them. to be a success you must produce somethingout of the ordinary for the world. and you will produce nothing unusualsave what your particular organism was built to produce. to know whatthis is, classify the kind of activities you "take to" naturally. youcan be a star in some line

that calls for those activities. you willnever succeed in any calling which demands the opposite kinds of activitiesor reactions. the worst place for her ⶠa few years ago, in san francisco, a youngwoman came to us for vocational advice. she had decided to findan opening in a silk-importing establishment, for none ofwhose duties she was qualified. when asked how she happened tohit upon the thing for which she unquestionably had no ability, she said: "i thought it would give me a world outlook(which i need); compel me to

learn fabrics (something i think every womanought to know); force me to attend to details (which i have always hatedbut which i must learn to master); and because it would bring me intocontact with people (i dislike them but think i should learn to dealwith them)." when considering a position ⶠwhen a position is being considered thequestions an applicant should be asking himself are, "what must i do inthis position? am i qualified? can i make good? do i like the activitiesdemanded by this position?" but ninety-nine out of every hundred applicantsfor a vacancy ask no

question of themselves whatever, and onlyone of anybody else. that question is to the employer and it is onlyfour words: "_what does it pay?_" he overlooks the fact that if the salary involvedis large enough to be attractive he will soon be severed from itunless he makes good. he also forgets that if the salary is small he canforce it to grow if he is big enough himself. if the particular task he is considering doesnot warrant a large salary, his employers will find one for himthat does if he shows he has

ability. every business in the world is looking forpeople who can do a few things a trifle better than the mass of peopleare doing them today, and whenever they find them they pay them well--becauseit pays them in the long run. the big-salaried men ⶠdon't be afraid that you may develop abilityand then find no market for it. the only jobs that have to go beggingare the big-salaried ones, because the combination of intelligence andefficiency is not easy to

find. the men who are drawing from $10,000to $50,000 a year are not supermen. they are not very different fromanybody else. but they found a line that fitted their particular talents,and they went ahead cultivating those talents without asking foreverything in advance. looking for "chicken feed" ⶠwhile touring through the rockies lastsummer we came one day to a log shack perched on the mountain-side near theroad. in the back-yard was the owner, just ready to feed his he flung out the grain they came from every direction, crowding andjostling each other and

frantically pecking for the tiny morsels hethrew on the ground. several dozen flocked around him. but three or fourstayed on the outer edge, ready to scamper for the big grains he threwnow and then amongst the boulders up on the hillside. "i do that just to see them use their heads,"he explained. "people are just like that. they rush for the little chanceswhere all the competition is, instead of staying out wherethey can see a big chance when it comes." life is full of opportunities for every personwho will consult his own

capacities and _aim for the big chance_. causes of misfits ⶠvarious influences are responsible forthe misfit, chief amongst which are his loving parents. many fathers and mothers,with the best intentions in the world, urge their childrento enter vocations for which they have no natural fitness whatever.these same parents often discourage in their children the very talentswhich, if permitted to develop, would make them successful. such a child has small chance in the worldif it happens that his

parents are sufficiently well-to-do to holdthe purse strings on his training. not until he has failed at the workthey choose for him will such parents desist. when they finally allowhim to take to the work he prefers they are usually surprised to seehow clever he is. but if he does not succeed at it they shouldbear in mind that it is doubtless due to their having cheated himout of his priceless youth--the years when the mind is moldable,impressionable and full of inspiration. poverty's one advantage

ⶠin this situation alone does the childof poverty-ridden parents have greater opportunities than the child of thewell-to-do. he at least chooses his own work, and this is one morelittle reason why the world's most successful men so often come from theranks of the poor. "ruined by too much mothering and fathering"is a verdict we would frequently render if we knew the facts. richard and dorothy ⶠone instance in which fate took a handwas very interesting. a new york widow, whose husband had left his largefortune entirely to her,

nursed definite ambitions for her son anddaughter. richard, she had decided, should become a stock-raiser andfarmer on the several-thousand-acre ranch they owned intexas. dorothy should study art in paris. but it so happened that richard and dorothydisliked the respective vocations laid out for them, while each wantedto do the very thing the other was being driven to do. richard wassmall, dark, sensitive, esthetic--and bent on being an artist. dorothy,who was six feet in her stockings, laughed at art and wanted to bea farmer.

but mother was obdurate and mother held thefamily purse. so, in the spring of 1914, dorothy was sent to paristo study the art richard loved, and richard was sent to the texas ranchthat dorothy wanted. then the war broke and dorothy hurried fromparis to avoid german shells, while richard enlisted to escape thetexas ranch. dorothy, in her element at last, took over the ranch (ofwhich richard had made a failure), turned it into one vast war garden,became a farmerette and is there now--a shining success. richard got to paris during the war and whenit closed refused to come

home. he wrote his mother that the war hadtaught him he could earn his own living--an accomplishment he is achievingtoday with his art. the mother herself is happier than she ever wasbefore, and proud of her children's success. three kinds of parents ⶠparents can be divided into three classes--thosewho over-estimate their children, those who under-estimate theirchildren, and those who do not estimate them at all. the great majority are in the first group.this accounts for the fact

that most fathers and mothers are disillusioned,as their children, one by one, fall short of their cherished hopes. those who under-estimate their children arein that small group--of parents who live to be happily surprised attheir achievements. the best parents of all are those who allowtheir children to follow their natural talents. don'ts for parents ⶠdon't push your child into any vocationhe dislikes. don't be like the parents we dined with we sat around the

table they pointed out their four childrenas follows: "there's georgie--we're going to make a doctor of him.our best friend is a doctor. we'll make a lawyer out of johnnie.there's been a lawyer in the family for generations. jimmie is to be aminister. we thought it was about time we had one of them in the family." "what about helen?" we asked. "oh, helen--why, she's going to marry andhave a nice home of her own." any student of human analysis would have recognizedthat of this quartet of children not one was being directed intothe right vocation. he would

have seen that the square-jawed muscular jimmiewould make a much better lawyer than a minister; that little johnnieshould be a teacher or a lecturer; that fat georgie was born for businessinstead of medicine; and that helen had more ability than any ofher brothers. the woman misfit ⶠtoo many parents have gone on the theorythat belonging to the female sex was a sure indication of home-making,mothering, housekeeping abilities. the commercial world is full of women whohave starved, wasted and

shriveled their lives away behind counters,desks and typewriters when they were meant for motherhood and wifehood. the homes of the land are also full of womenwho, with the brains and effort they have given to scrubbing, washingand cooking, could have become "captains of industry." the sealed parcel ⶠif you are a parent don't allow yourselfto set your heart on any particular line of work for your children.your child is a sealed parcel and only his own tendencies, as they appearduring youth, can tell what

that parcel really contains. allow these traits to unfold naturally, normallyand freely. don't complicate your own problem by trying to advisehim too soon. don't praise certain professions. children are intenselysuggestible. the knowledge that father and mother considera certain profession especially desirable oftentimes influencesa child to waste time working toward it when he has no real ability forit. every hour of youth is precious and this wastage is unspeakably expensive. on the other hand, do not attempt to prejudiceyour child _against_ any

profession. don't let him think, for instance,that you consider overalls a badge of inferiority, or a whitecollar the mark of superiority. many a man in blue denim todaycould buy and sell the collar-and-cuff friends of his earlier years.the size of a man's laundry bill is no criterion of his income. popular misconceptions ⶠother parents make the equally foolishmistake of showing their dislike of certain professions. not long agowe heard a father say in the presence of his large family, "i don'twant any of my boys to be

lawyers. lawyers are all liars. ministersare worse; they're all a bunch of sissies. doctors are all fakes. actorsare all bad eggs; and business is one big game of cheat or be cheated. i'mgoing to see that every boy i've got becomes a farmer." misdirected mothering ⶠa very unfortunate case came to our attentionseveral years ago. in chicago a mother brought her eighteen-year-oldson to us for vocational counsel. "i am determined that james shallbe a minister," she said. "my whole happiness depends upon it. i have worked,slaved and sacrificed

ever since his father died that he might havethe education for it. now i want you to tell james to be a minister." we refused to take the case, explaining thatour analyses didn't come to order but had to fit the facts as we foundthem. she still insisted upon the analysis. it revealed the fact that jameswas deficient mentally, save in one thing. his capacity for observingwas lightning-like in its swiftness and microscopic in its completeness.and his capacity for judging remote motives from immediate actionswas uncannily accurate. he was a human ferret, as had been provenmany times during his boyhood.

at one time the jewelry store in which heworked as a shipping clerk lost a valuable necklace, and after the policeof chicago had failed to find a clew, james' special ability was reportedand he was given a week's vacation to work on the case. he tookthe last three days for a long-desired trip to milwaukee. he had landedthe thief in the first four. we told the mother that her boy's abilitywas about the farthest removed from the ministerial that could wellbe imagined, but that he would make an excellent detective. "i shall never permit it!" she cried. "hisfather was a policeman. i

distrust that whole class of people! i amtaking james to the theological seminary tomorrow"--and away shewent with him. two months later she came to us in great distress. shehad received a letter from the dean saying james had attended but oneday's classes. then he had announced that he was going home. insteadhe had cultivated a gang of underworld crooks for the purpose of investigatingtheir methods and had gotten into serious trouble. nevers for all ⶠnever choose a vocation just because itlooks _profitable_. it won't

bring profits to you long unless you are builtfor it. never choose a vocation just because it looks_easy_. no work will be easy for you except that which nature intendedfor you. never choose a vocation just because it permitsthe wearing of _good clothes_. you need more than a permit; youneed ability. never choose a vocation just because the _hoursare short_. you can't fool employers that way. they also know theyare short, and pay you accordingly. the extra play these leisurehours give you will amount to nothing but loss to you ten years hence.

never choose a vocation just because it is_popular_ or _sounds interesting_. "i am going to be a private secretary," saida young woman near us at the theater recently. "what will you have to do?" asked her friend. "oh, i don't know," the girl answered, "butit sounds so fascinating, don't you think?" never turn your back on a profession justbecause it is _old-fashioned, middle class or ordinary_. if you have talentsfitting you for such

vocations you are lucky, for these are theones for which there is the greatest demand. demand is a big help. ifyou can add a new touch to such a one you are made. why she taught german ⶠnever choose a vocation just because your_friends_ are in it, nor refuse another just because your worst enemyis in it. two friends come to mind in this is a splendid woman we knew at college. she became a german teacherand up to the outbreak of the war had an instructorship in a westernstate university. the

elimination of german lost her the position. "why did you ever choose german, anyhow, ruth?"we asked her. "your abilities lie in such a different direction." "because my favorite teacher in high schooltaught german," she replied. enemies and engineering ⶠan opposite case is that of a friend ofours who has worked in an uncongenial profession for thirty years. "youwere meant for engineering, tom," we told him. "with allthe leanings you had in that direction, how did it happen you didn't followit?"

"because the man who cheated my father outof all he had was an engineer!" he said. never choose a new vocation just because youare _restless_. you will be more so if you get into the wrong one. the "society" delusion ⶠnever choose a vocation just because itpromises _social standing_. the entree it gives will fail you unless youmake good. and social standing isn't worth much anyhow. when youare in the work for which you were born you won't worry about social will come to you

then whether you want it or not. and whenit does you will care very little about it. the entering wedge ⶠnever take a certain job _for life_ justbecause people are _dependent_ upon you. save enough to liveone month without a job, preparing yourself meanwhile for an enteringwedge into a vocation you do like. then take a smaller-paying placeif necessary to get started. if you really like the work you will do itso well you will promote yourself. you owe it to those who are dependentupon you to do this.

jack of all trades ⶠnever do anything just to show you _can_.don't let your versatility tempt you into following a number of linesof work for the purpose of demonstrating your ability. versatility canbe the greatest handicap of all; it tempts you to neglect intensive study,to flit, to become a "jack of all trades and master of none." only three kinds of work ⶠthere are but three general classes ofwork. they are: work with people;work with things;

work with ideas. each individual is fitted by nature to doone of these _better_ than the others and there will be one class for whichhe has the _least_ ability. in the other one of the three he might makea mediocre success. every individual should find a vocation furnishingthat one of these three kinds of work for which he has the _greatest_ability. then he should go into the particular _branch_ of that vocationwhich is best adapted to his personality, training, education, environment and experience.

vocations for alimentives ⶠas stated in chapter i, alimentives areborn for business. they can sell almost anything in the line of food,clothing, or shelter because they are so interested in them themselvesthey can make them interesting to others. they like money for the comfortswhich money alone can bring and business furnishes a wider field for money-makingthan any other. so the alimentive likes the commercial worldfor itself and for what it brings him. sells things to people

ⶠthe alimentive can deal with both peopleand things, but it should be in the capacity of selling the things to thepeople. chances for money-making ⶠthe alimentives have the greatest opportunitiestoday for making fortunes and many of the multi-millionairesof america are combinations of this type with the cerebral. this is dueto the fact that the world must be fed, clothed and sheltered and thealimentive, more than any other type, excels in the marketing, manufacturingand merchandizing of these things.

a good overseer ⶠthe alimentive makes an excellent overseeralso. he is so genial, likable and yet so bent on saving himselfwork that he can get more work out of others than can any other type. so he succeeds as a foreman, supervisor, boss,superintendent, manager and sales department head. capitalizes his "comfort" instincts ⶠthe alimentive loves comforts. he feelshe must have them. because any man's success will be found to lie in thedirection which most nearly

satisfies his basic instincts, the alimentivesucceeds by making "the good things of life" look so interesting toothers they are willing to buy them from him at the best prices. the alimentively inclined ⶠevery man who is largely alimentive intype can sell commodities or oversee the work of others. every woman whois largely alimentive can also sell the same commodities, oversee thework of others in her department and become a good cook. things to avoid

ⶠthe alimentive should avoid vocations dealingexclusively with ideas. books are almost the only things an alimentivecan not sell successfully. this is due to the fact thathe is not as interested in ideas as in things, and the things he is interestedin--food and comforts--are the farthest removed from books. partners to select ⶠwhen he goes into partnership the alimentiveshould endeavor to do so with a practical muscular, a clever thoracicor another alimentive. partners and employees to avoid

ⶠhe should avoid as partners the pure cerebralsand the pure osseous. the former are too high brow and visionaryfor him, and the osseous are too critical of his easy ways. bosses to avoid ⶠthe alimentive, when looking for employment,should try to avoid the boss who is a pure cerebral or a pure osseous.the cerebral may be a good planner but his plans and those of thealimentives will not work well together. the cerebral can not see thealimentive's point of view clearly enough to forgive him for his tooprimitive methods. the pure

osseous boss soon becomes disgusted becausethe alimentive is so lacking in system. he usually comes out allright in the end, but the orderly osseous is too exasperated by whathe considers the alimentive's slackness, to wait for the end. localities to avoid ⶠthe alimentive should avoid all frontiers.he can not work well without conveniences, and since these arefew and far between in unsettled regions it is much more difficultfor him to be a success there.

vocations for pure alimentives ⶠcooking, catering, nursing, merchandizingof all food and drink stuffs, the conducting of cafes, restaurants,hotels, cafeterias, rest rooms and all places maintained for the ease,comfort and feeding of mankind, are the general vocations for pureor extreme alimentives. vocations for alimentive-thoracics ⶠthe merchandizing of the artistic, noveland esthetic in food, clothing and shelter; conducting of tea rooms,confectionery stores, smart specialty and clothing shops. salesmanshipof restricted residence

districts, fancy cars, etc. vocations for alimentive-musculars ⶠthe merchandizing of more practical commoditiessuch as potatoes, meat, middle class homes, durable clothing.alimentive-muscular women make excellent dressmakers. vocations for the alimentive-osseous ⶠmerchandizing of farms, ranches, timber,lumber, hardware. bond salesmanship. vocations for alimentive-cerebrals

ⶠmerchandizing, manufacturing and marketingof food, clothing and shelter commodities on a large scale in worldmarkets. this type combination exists in most of the world'smillionaires. vocations for thoracics ⶠthe thoracic type works best with people.every person in whom this type predominates will make his greatest successonly in vocations bringing him into contact with people. the born entertainer ⶠas we have pointed out, the thoracic isa born entertainer. his

greatest abilities lie in the direction ofthe stage and all forms of its activities. capitalizes his approbative instincts ⶠthe thoracic loves the approval and applauseof others. he is clever, dazzling, often scintillating, brilliant andmagnetic. all these enable him to win fame behind the foot-lights, uponthe screen and in many lines of theatrical work. his gregarious instinctsalso enable him to make a success of work with others. ⶠhis chances for making a great deal ofmoney are excellent. a thousand

dollars a week is not an unusual salary foran entertainer and the thousand-dollar-a-night singer is no longera rarity. these always belong to the thoracic type, for reasons statedin chapter ii. chances for money-spending ⶠbut when the stage gives him a large incomeit also furnishes the companions and temptations for spending moneyfreely. even the thoracic of fame seldom has much money. also his ownirresponsibility makes it difficult for him to save. work to avoid

ⶠthe thoracic should avoid every line ofwork which has to be done the same way day in and day out. he must avoidroutine in every form. monotonous work is not for him. ⶠthings the thoracic must avoid are themechanical--for these demand to be used in the same way always. the thoracicdoes not like to do anything over and over. should not work alone ⶠthe thoracic should never work alone. heshould not go into any vocation where he is separated from his fellows.the loneliness and

drabness of working away from people are fatalto his best effort. business partners to select ⶠthe thoracic should select muscular businesspartners because of their practicalizing influence. second choice forhim is an alimentive partner and third is a thoracic like himself. ⶠthe thoracic should avoid osseous employeesand osseous partners, for the reason that this type can no more understandthe thoracic than it can understand the easy-going alimentive.these two types are at opposite ends of the pole, and to blend themharmoniously in any

relationship is almost impossible. the thoracicemployer, who always wants things done instantly, is maddened bythe slow, unadaptable osseous employee. ⶠfor the reasons stated above, every thoracicperson should avoid working for extremely bony people. the osseousis as much irritated by the rapid-fire reactions of the thoracic employeeas the thoracic is by the slowness of the osseous. ⶠthe thoracic individual should avoid alllocalities which would cut him off from his kind. he should never, exceptwhen combined with the

osseous in type, live in remote regions, onthe edge of civilization or too far away from neighbors. companionshipis always essential to his happiness and success. vocations for the pure thoracics ⶠart, advertising, comic opera, grand opera,concert singing, the stage, the screen and all forms of high classreception work are the lines for pure thoracics. for thoracic-alimentives ⶠmedicine, merchandizing of artistic, estheticcommodities, life

insurance, moving pictures, novelty salesmanship,and demonstrating. for thoracic-musculars ⶠvocal and instrumental music, interiordecoration, politics, social service, advertising, athletics and design. for thoracic-osseous ⶠlandscape gardening, scientific research,the ministry. for thoracic-cerebrals ⶠauthorship, private secretaryship, education,journalism, musical composition, publicity work, photography.

vocations for musculars ⶠthe muscular works best with things. hedoes not sell them as well as does the alimentive--for the things he isinterested in are not the things that sell but the things that move.he likes to work with high-powered cars, machinery of all kinds,and everything that involves motion. these things, though necessities sometimesand luxuries occasionally, are not such necessities asfood, clothing and homes. therefore there is no such market for them.the automobile has almost made itself a necessity, but even it is notyet as necessary to human

happiness as food, clothing or shelter. the born mechanic and inventor ⶠthe muscular is the born mechanic and inventor.he enjoys working with things he can handle, mold, change, constructand improve with his powerful, efficient hands. most of the mechanicsof the world are musculars and every inventor has the muscularelement strongly marked in ⶠthe muscular's chances for making moneyare not as great as those of the alimentive, for the reason that he dealsbest with things the world can sometimes get along without. his money-makingchances are not as

great as those of the thoracic, for he isnot fitted to win the public favor which comes to the latter. also themuscular's vocations are not as well paid as those of the two former types,unless his inventions are successful. the orator ⶠoratory furnishes one of the best fieldsfor the muscular's money-making and fame-achieving opportunities.every man and woman who has acquired fame or fortune on the publicplatform has much of the muscular type in his makeup--always, however,in combination with the

capitalizes his activity instincts ⶠas shown in chapter iii, the muscular,like the other types, capitalizes his chief instinct. in his caseit is the instinct of activity. the muscular likes activity, sohe likes work, and because he is a good worker he nearly always has workto do. the muscularly inclined ⶠevery person muscularly inclined can makea success at something of a practical nature, in the handling, running,driving, constructing or inventing of machinery.

ⶠthe muscular should avoid all vocationswhich confine him within small areas, pin him down to inactivity or sedentarywork. ⶠthe musculars should select musculars astheir first choice in business partners, with cerebrals second andthoracics third. ⶠthe muscular should avoid the osseous partner,the osseous boss and the osseous employee because his pugnacitymakes it almost impossible for him to work harmoniously with this type. ⶠthe muscular can work in almost any locality.but he should avoid every place which keeps him too closely confined.

vocations for pure musculars ⶠthe driving of high-powered cars, airplanes,machinery of all kinds, and work with his hands are the lines in whichthe average muscular is most often successful. other lines for himare construction, civil engineering, mechanics, professional dancing,acrobatics, athletics and pugilism. women of this type make splendid physicalculture teachers and expert swimmers. for muscular-alimentives

ⶠthe manufacturing and selling of practicalfoods, clothing and shelter; also politics. for muscular-thoracics ⶠadvertising, sculpture, osteopathy, athletics,exploration, medicine, baritone and tenor singing, instrumental music,politics, social service, transportation, designing and dentistry. for muscular-osseous ⶠconstruction, bridge building, office law,policemen and police women, mechanics, mining.

for muscular-cerebrals ⶠarchitecture, art, journalism, trial orjury law, oratory, surgery, transportation. teachers and tragedians alsocome from this type. vocations for the osseous ⶠthe osseous man or woman can do his bestwork with things. those with which he works best are lands, forests, thesea, the plains, the mountains and certain kinds of mechanicalthings. instead of combining things and people inhis work, like the alimentive; machines and people, like the muscular; orpeople only, like the

thoracic, the osseous must not only confinehimself almost exclusively to working with things, but he must work withthem away from the interference or interruption or superintendenceof other people. capitalizes his independence instinct ⶠthe osseous, like other types, succeedsin work which automatically brings into play his basic instincts. hisfundamental instinct is that of _independence_. he never succeeds signallyin any line of work in which this instinct is repressed or thwarted. he chafes against restriction, enjoys masteringa thing and when let

alone to work in his own way he makes an excellentemployee. as has been stated, he is the "steadiest" of all. ⶠchances for the osseous to make a greatdeal of money are few. unless he confines himself to finance--working asexclusively with money as possible--or to dealing with natural resources,the osseous seldom becomes rich. he cares more for money than any of the othertypes, saves a much larger portion of what he earns, and no matter howrich, is seldom extravagant. his greatest obstacle to money-making is histendency to hang on to

whatever he has, awaiting the rise in priceswhich never go quite high enough to suit him. an osseous friend of ours has lived for fortyyears on almost nothing while holding, for a fabulous price, an oldresidential corner on a desirable block of a downtown street in oneof the large american cities. he could have sold it years ago forenough to make him comfortable for life, to give him travel,leisure, comforts and self-expression, but he refused. as has been pointed out before, each individualprefers the

self-expression common to his type. this manhas found more of what is real self-expression to him in defying thedestruction of this building and the march of commerce in that neighborhood,and in opposing prospective buyers, than all the money-boughtcomforts in the world could have given him. so he has worked away as a draughtsman ata small salary eight hours a day for those forty years. he is unmarriedand has no brothers or sisters. when he dies remote relatives whomhe has never seen and who care nothing for him will sell the propertyand have a good time on the

money. but they will have no better time spendingit than he has had saving it! those who are inclined to the osseous ⶠevery person with a large osseous elementis capable of saving money, of being a faithful worker under right conditionsand of withstanding hardship in his work. difficult missions intopioneer regions are successful only when entrusted to men or womenwho have the osseous as one of their first two elements. the north pole

ⶠit is a significant fact that all the menwho have made signal efforts at finding the north and south poles havepossessed the bony as a large proportion of their makeup. no extremely fatman has ever attempted such a thing. missionaries ⶠit is also interesting to note that themost successful missionaries have had a larger-than-average bony systemand that all those who go into the extreme edges of civilization andstay there any length of time are largely of this type.

other types plan to become missionaries andsome get as far as to be sent somewhere, but those who stick, who spendyears in the far corners of the earth, are always largely osseous. ⶠthe osseous must avoid all vocations demandinghis constant or intimate contact with large numbers of people,every kind of work that calls for instantaneous movements, suddenadaptations to environment, many or sudden decisions, or crowded workrooms. _he must avoid working for, with, under orover others._ ⶠthe osseous should never have a partnerif he can help it.

when he can not help it, he should choosea person of large cerebral tendencies, for no other type will stand forhis peculiarities. ⶠhe should avoid, above all things, a partnerwho is osseous like himself. an osseous always knows what he wantsto do, how he wants to do it, and when. and one of the requirementswith him usually is that it must be the opposite of the thing, mannerand time desired by the other fellow. so in business, as in marriage, two osseouspeople find themselves in unending warfare. he should avoid the osseousemployee also for the same

reasons, and choose the only types that willsubmit to his hard driving. ⶠthe osseous should never work for a bosswhen he has brains enough to work alone. he is so independent that it isalmost impossible for him to take orders, and the "contrary streak" inhim runs so deep that he is just naturally against what others want himto do. he is the most insubordinate of all typesas an employee and as a boss is the most inexorable. ⶠthe osseous should avoid all congestedcommunities. he does not belong in the city. except in some vocation wherehe handles money, he seldom

succeeds in a metropolis. his field is the frontier--the great openspaces of land, sea, forest and mountain--where he works with things thatgrow, that are not sensitive, that do not offer human resistanceto his imperious, dominating nature. vocations for pure osseous ⶠfarming, stock-raising, lumbering, lighthousekeeping, open-sea fishing, hardware, saw-milling and all pioneeringactivities are the vocations in which the unmixed osseous succeedsbest.

for osseous-alimentives ⶠwork as a farm hand, sheep or cattle herder,or truck gardener are the lines in which this combination succeeds best.he can do clerical work for osseous-thoracics ⶠagriculture, carpentering, railroading,mining, office law, electrical and chemical engineering are the first choicesfor this combination. both men and women of this type succeed onpolice forces also. for osseous-cerebrals ⶠthe invention of intricate mechanical devicesis something in which

this combination often succeeds. other linesfor him are those of statistician, mathematician, proof-reader,expert accountant, genealogist and banker. vocations for cerebrals ⶠthe cerebral man or woman can never behappy or successful until he is in work that deals with ideas. but his planningis often impractical and for this reason he does not succeed when workingindependently as does the osseous. capitalizes his cerebrative instinct

ⶠthe cerebral gets his name from the cerebrumor thinking part of the brain, because this is the system most highlyevolved in him. its great size in the large-headed man causes it todominate his life. thus his chief instinct is cerebration--dreaming,meditating, visualizing, planning. since these are thereal starters of all progress this type should be encouraged, with a viewto making him more practical. the born writer ⶠthe brain system is large in all men andwomen who achieve distinction

in writing, or in other lines where the braindoes most of the work. unless combined with the muscular, this manwrites much better than he talks and usually avoids speech-making. whenthe muscular is combined with the cerebral he will be an excellentlecturer or teacher. ⶠthe pure cerebral has the least likelihoodof making money of any of the types, for the reasons stated in chapterv. if he is a pure cerebral his ideas and writings,however brilliant, will seldom bring him financial independence unlesshe gets a muscular, thoracic or alimentive business manager andstrictly follows his

directions. the cerebrally inclined ⶠany person inclined to the cerebral type--thatis, with a large, wide, high forehead or a large head for his body--willsucceed in some line of work where study and mental effort are required. ⶠthe pure cerebral should avoid every kindof work that calls for manual or bodily effort, physical strenuosity,lifting of heavy things, or the handling of large machines. he shouldavoid every kind of work that gives no outlet for planning or thinking.he should avoid being an

employer because he sees the employee's viewpointso clearly that he lives in his skin instead of his own. thismeans that he does not get the service out of employees that other typesget. he is not fitted in any way to rule others,dislikes to dominate them, feels like apologizing all the time for compellingthem to do things, and is made generally miserable by this responsibility. ⶠthe selection of a partner is one of greaterimportance to the cerebral than to any other type, for it isalmost impossible for him to work out his plans alone.

it is as necessary for the cerebral to havea partner as it is for the osseous not to have one. this partner should be a person largely ofthe muscular type, to supply the practicality the cerebral lacks. as asecond choice he should be of the thoracic type, to supply the gregariousnesswhich the cerebral lacks. the third choice should be an osseous,to supply the quality which can get work out of employees and thusmake up for the lax treatment the cerebral tends to give his subordinates. ⶠthough he succeeds well when he is himselfa combination of alimentive

and cerebral, the pure cerebral should avoidpartners and employees who are purely alimentive. their ideas and attitudesare too far away from his own for them to succeed co-operatively. ⶠthe cerebral can work in any locality,partly from the fact that every spot in the world interests him. but he shouldavoid ranches, livestock farms, lumber camps, construction gangs, ditch-diggingand saw-milling jobs, for he lacks the physical strength tostand up to them. vocations for pure cerebrals ⶠeducation, teaching, library work, authorship,literary criticism, and

philosophy are the vocations best fitted tothe pure cerebral. for cerebral-alimentives ⶠthis combination comprises the majorityof the world's millionaires, for it combines the intense alimentive desiresfor life's comforts with the extreme brain capacity necessary to getthem. so he becomes a "magnate," a man of "big business," and tendsto high finance, manufacturing and merchandizing on a world-scale. for cerebral-thoracics ⶠjournalism, the ministry, teaching, photography,interior decorating,

magazine editing, are among the vocationsbest suited to this type. the best educational directors for large departmentstores and other establishments, and some of the best comedians,belong to this combination. for cerebral-musculars ⶠmanual education, trial or jury law, inventionof all kinds of machinery, social service, oratory, teaching,lecturing, and nose and throat surgery are the best lines of workfor this combination. for cerebral-osseous

ⶠauthorship, finance, statistics, inventionof complex mechanical devices, expert accounting and mathematicsare the best lines for this ⶠso here, then, endeth "_the five humantypes_," being the first volume in the world to expound science's discoverythat all human beings fall into five definite divisions according totheir biological evolution. by _elsie lincoln benedict_, first writer andpublisher of this classification, first lecturer in the worldto present it to the public, and first compiler of the science of _humananalysis_. also by _ralph paine benedict_, whose knowledge and co-operationinspired the doing of

all these, printed and made into a book bythe roycrofters at their shops which are at east aurora, erie countyand state of new york, in the year nineteen hundred and twenty-one. +----------------------------------------------------------------------+| | | transcriber's note || | | the following spelling corrections havebeen made:-- | | || page 5 'places' to 'placed' 'placed the finished product' || | | page 28 'superficialties' to 'superficialities''superficialities |

| sway us' || | | page 66 'ballon' to 'balloon' 'or a toyballoon' | | || page 75 'qualitiy' to 'quality' 'marked emotional quality' || | | page 149 'smilingy' to 'smilingly' 'we remonstratedsmilingly' | | || page 151 'envolved' to 'involved' 'there was involved' || | | page 251 'posses' to 'possess' 'be saidto possess' | | || page 255 'fraility' to 'frailty' 'his physical

frailty' || | | page 275 'directled' to 'directed' 'to whomthey are directed' | | || page 288 'handerkerchief' to handkerchief' 'picks up her || handkerchief' | | || page 315 'comtemplating' to 'contemplating' 'have been || contemplating' | | || page 350 'intrusted' to 'entrusted' 'only when entrusted' || | | references to chart numbers is a referenceto illustrations 1 to 10. |

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