good morning, everyone, it's a great pleasureto have you all here with us this morning. as ann said, i'm ellen futter, the presidentof the museum and it is my very great pleasure to welcome all of you to the museum this morningas we preview our newest hayden planetarium space show, dark universe. in the past 13 years since we opened the rosecenter for urban space in the new hayden planetarium right up there, millions and millions of visitorsfrom around the world have come to this spectacular facility and been inspired, informed, enlightenedand utterly dazzled by our exhibits and space shows. but also during that time scientific understandingof the universe and the technology by which
we can study it have exploded. like biology,astrophysics is in a period of tremendous activity and discovery right now and thisnew space show brings our visitors to the very edge of what is known. dark matter is that mysterious stuff and darkenergy the mysterious force that scientists now know make up the vast majority of theuniverse. and yet it can't be seen. so, what is it? how does it behave? how did scientistseven discover it and how do they study and observe it today? in this new space show,we will reveal this and much more. but at the root of all that we display isthe unquenchable and animating, inquisitive spirit of humanity that drives us to figureit all out and to make continuous progress
in doing so, bit by bit by bit. we are deeply grateful to our partners whohave made this space show possible, including accenture, sponsor of dark universe and we'revery pleased to have with us today laila worell, managing director of the new york office androxanne taylor, chief marketing and communications officeâ€”thank you so much for your support.and for your continuous partnership in our space shows. and thanks also to support from con edisonand welcome to hilary ayala, director of grassroots management and strategic partnerships, we'redelighted you're here, as well. and we acknowledge that charles hayden foundation,our planetariums namesake, for its longstanding
support of the planetarium and for major fundingfor dark universe. creating something as complex and technicalas hayden planetarium space shows takes a lot of hands and minds and we really do havea dream team on this project. an exceptionally talented and truly multi-disciplinary groupof scientist, educators, visualization experts, engineers, writers, composers and others,working together to make the story of dark matter and dark energy visible and accessible.and you'll be hearing more from some of them in just a moment. the end result is a true marriage of highlycomplex scientific data with the most sophisticated design and expertise and interpretation, allmade possible through advanced technology.
if you think about it, the museum has longbeen a place where art and science have come together to teach and to inspire. the spectacularhabitat dioramas just a short walk away are a magnificent historic example of this, thoughstill highly relevant and effective. for when art and science truly coalesce, our abilityto approach and understand the world around us is expanded and deepened. and, of course,since this is the rose center, we've added a dollop of thrill and wonder to the mix,as we take you on a journey deep into the universe. leonardo da vinci, perhaps the original embodimentof art and science wrote that "a painter should begin every canvas with a wash of black.because all things in nature are dark except
where exposed by light." and so, in this show, dark universe, we shedlight on the dark. which is, in a way, what this museum is all about. of course, no expedition to space would becomplete without a voice to guide us in the dark and for that task we have one of thepremier illuminators and guides extant. the narrator of dark universe, our very own neildegrasse tyson, frederick p. rose director of the hayden planetarium and one of the greatestpublic communicators of science. he has written 10 books and was host of pbs's nova sciencenow for five seasons. perhaps not since carl sagan has a voice been so recognizable asa guide to the universe. which is fitting,
since next spring, neil will be hosting a21st century reboot of carl sagan's cosmos tv series on fox. i'm pleased now to turn the program overto neil tyson. welcome to the universe. i like to think ofthat. just to remind you, if it's your first time here, you're sitting underneath thesphere containing the hayden planetarium and it is properly supported above your head.my sister, when we were growing up, we came here all the time. and one of the things thatscared her was the whale suspended over your head. so it seems to be a thing we like todo to put you on edge. i just want to make it clear that we havea panel, i'm going to invite them up in
just a moment. other than attending like anearly meeting on this space show, my only role was to narrate it. and so in order toflesh out what this occasion is for us together, we need to get into how all the sausage getsmade. so let me right now bring up the principalsof the creation of dark universe and just all up together in a row: mordecai, carter,vivian, tim and robert. and, as i address them individually, you'll learn more aboutthem as they unfold this conversation. thank you, lady and gentlemen. so, like i said, all i did was narrate it.so any thoughts you have, questions regarding the show are going to come up to the fiveof them and i take host privileges by being
the first to address them. mordecai mac low,my colleague in the department of astrophysics, is chief curator of the show. and, in theold days, planetariums were justâ€”i don't want to say "just"â€”but we would havefour shows a year, one each season. and we'd show the stars of the night sky and then thevoice of the director would guide you through them. and it's like really different now.and so tell me about the collaborations necessary and the creation of the themes that went intoit. okay. well, what's different now is, insteadof sky shows looking out from the surface of the earth into the universe, we have spaceshows. with digital technology, we've taken you off the surface of the earth, out of thesolar system and into the universe. you are
there. and this requires drawing on the tremendousamount of astronomical knowledge we've gathered over the last century. here at the museum,we've developed the digital universe, which takes every three-dimensional position knownto astronomers, from the hipparcos satellite of the european space agency, from ground-basedsurveys like the sloan survey, and puts them into our dome and gives you a joystick. thereactually is a joystick up there. and you can fly around it. and that is the skeleton, thefoundation of our shows. then, to actually visualize the astronomicalevents and occurrences that we're bringing into the show, we go out and work with thebest astrophysical simulators around the world and the best observers around the world. whoever'sdoing the work, we go and tap on their shoulder.
and one of the advantages of having a researchdepartment in astrophysics here at the museum, is that these are our colleagues. these arenot someone that is a stranger to us. we know their work because, well, sometimes we'recompeting with them and we know they did a little better. so we know who's good and we can talk tothem on an even stage and so, when we wanted to do simulations of dark matter, for example,we went to tom [amable] at the kavli institute for particle astrophysics and cosmology atstanford and he had the best model and we've got the best visualization of it. thank you,carter. tim, you're a writer of everything astronomicaland i remember your earliest books back in
the 1970s. the red limit i think was one ofthem, is that right? yes. your very first. so, tim, we're privilegedin astrophysics to have people such as tim who is professionally, he's like an englishperson. you were a professor of english at brooklyn college long ago, is that right? that's true. and so we have... proud of it. and so we have people who not onlyâ€”i mean,any one of us can write a wiki page article,
but it takes another level of talent to actuallyput an idea to words in a way that really works its way into your sort of heart andsoul. so, tim, when you saw this topic and you weretasked with writing about it, was that hard? was it easy? was it just another gig? well, i was grateful to have the opportunity,because i got, i was exposed to science and came to realize what a great subject scienceis because of institutions like this one. when i was a kid, i would come to the haydenplanetarium when visiting new york and other cities and i was always impressed by the factthat there were some adults who were willing to take the time to explain these things ina way that i could understand.
and that impressed me more in a way than thecontents sometimes. just that there was a culture of handing down of science and theconceptions of the universe. you know, through history, virtually every culture about whichwe have any information has found it important to have an account of what the universe islike and how it got to be here. up until very recently, those accounts were imaginary, theywere the best stories someone could think up, because they didn't have the observationaldata to know the facts. now we have a growing factual story of whatnature is like on the large scale and what our common history of this planet and thissolar system and all the other stars and galaxies is. and i've always found that a fantasticsubject to write about. we science writers
are in the same boat as the poets in one sense,that you have to find exactly the right language to accurately represent something that'svery technical. there will always be some flawsâ€”you know, robert frost said everymetaphor is imperfect, that's the beauty of them. so you try to make an array of.. otherwise, it's not a metaphor, it's theexact description. exactly, yeah, and so in a way you're tryingto turn the flaw in the metaphorâ€”turn the vase around to the point that it's not relevantto the story that you're telling. so, over the more than a year that i'vebeen involved in this project, it's really been interesting to go back and forth aboutexactly what language will best serve what
is after all, speaking as americans, our greatart form, you know, science. that's what we do best. i'd like to say that, as i narrated thescript, the words just spoke themselves out of my mouth and so it was a trivial exerciseto carry his words onto recording. i'm very glad to hear that. yes, tim. next: carter. carter emmart is thedirector of astrovisualization. we actually have such a title here. and in the historyof hayden planetarium, we've always had the luxury, first of being a producing entityâ€”mostplanetariums in the country do not have the resources to create their own product. theywould buy it or rent it from other sources.
we have the privilege of being able to createit. and, over that legacy, we've always had in-house scientifically literate artists.and what a pleasure that is, because then you can speak to them and they can think aboutit in a way that you can't or you haven't or wouldn't have thought to and figure outa way to then bring that to the public. carter transitioned us from the old-fashioneddays where we would photograph canvas and put it up on the dome into the world of thecomputer representation of our data. and so carter, what challenges did representing somethingdark for you? it's actually, [it follows] along a legacy, obviously. the planetarium, in the traditionalsense, was the sky and seeing positions of
planets and stars and so forth. but with theadvent of the rebuild [this] [unintelligible] the turn of the millennium, we had the abilityto really fully display science data on the dome continuously in a movie format. whenthat happened, that really opened the door to visualizing basically the three dimensionallayout of the universe and then the simulations of its behavior. and so in the case of getting a simulation,such in dark universe, such as dark matter, such as also [frankly] illustrates dark energy,the galaxy, these things all coming together as simulations were really sort of coloringby number. we basically take the output from simulations and we [confer] those into thepictures.
well, it's more than that. you're establishingtrajectories through the data. you're not just coloring pictures. how to visualize it. well, okay. once you have the layout there,then you can fly the camera interactively. a lot of the flight paths personally i flewand then i'd hand them over to my very exceptional technical directors, john parker and andreas[unintelligible], sitting over there. please stand up a second, you guys. more of the team, yes. these guys did a lot of the work.
and so this ability to fly through the universeis our ability to really sort of scan it with our brain. this is a new era where we canreally get into that data. and in that tradition of what the planetarium becomesâ€”it's alwaysbeen a place where you can go in, you have a simulation [unintelligible] of the nightsky. but just as you walk around this museum and you see the dioramas, these are windowson nature with a glass wall, you can't step inside. upstairs is our portal to the closestthing i think we'll ever get to a real starship. and as the technology gets better and better,that immersive senseâ€”and this represents the pinnacle of our abilities so far in this,so it's an attempt and we hope you enjoy it.
but, really, it's our way to sort of stepbeyond the glass, step into the tradition of what this place is and really go [withit]. so you wanted to go into the dioramas? i didn't,because there were scary animals on the other side of the diorama. having grown up hereâ€”keep'em behind glass. vivian trakinski, she was the director ofscience bulletins here at the museum and it's a natural extension of those talents to becomebasically a producer, producer of the show. and most people don't think about the producer,they just see the final product. and you sometimes just become invisible and so, tell me whatyou did to make yourself invisible. so, when a producer does her job well, shedoes become invisible. basically, it's the
producer's job i think to act as the gluein a production. as you can probably tell, there are a lot of very passionate, creativepeople working on this project. it's a giant story, we could have gone in a million directions.we have a limited timeframe, a limited budget and limited resources. so i think my most important job as produceron this was to try and get everybody on the same page, facilitate a common vision. there'sa lot of iteration in these shows between script and visuals and music. you know, veryparticular science points that need to get in there. some science we would have likedto get in there that mordecai just wasn't convinced about. so a producer's job isreally to keep the program moving forward.
and occasionally i like to act as the dummycheck, so i don't have a science background, except what i've learned here at the museum.so i could stand in for you guys and for the audience and say i have no idea what you'retalking about. you just called the audience a dummy. just,by inference... i meant it in the nicest possible way. so, vivian, you said you were the glue, butsometimes that turns into a whip at times, is that correct? never. well, hardly ever.
yeah, we'll be the judge of that. robert.what does space sound like? you're a composer of everything that is composable. tv commercials,movie scores and that's what you do. and we now hand you the universe. what's thecreative process there as composer of record for this project? good morning, everybody. well, you know, it'sa very fascinating thing to talk about because i hear a lot of incredible information hereat the museum and it's from folks like all of you. and it's very deep and it's fascinating.but behind those facts is really something so fundamental that really unites every oneof us. it's this very basic spirit of wonder. what is it that really drives us to want toknow what we know and to perceive what we
don't know? and that feeling is kind oflike being a perpetual 6-yeear-old who just stares up at the heavens. and that feelingis living within me, but i believe everyone in this room feels very similar feelings aboutthe things that we wonder about. so my job really, in a sense, is to crystallizethose feelings somehow in sound, to bring to life that sense of excitement, the senseof wonder, fascination. sometimes the idea that we're a little nervous or even a littleterrified of some of the expansive ideas involved our search for knowing what we don't knowabout the universe. wait, so you have a portfolio of, okay, thismusical phrase will be terrifying. this will be pleasing. this will beâ€”i mean, this ishow you're thinking about it, right?
absolutely not. i believe that each time i'vecome to work on a score for all of us at the museum, i'm just trying to be an open bookand at times i'm on the nose and i'm crystallizing something that seems like a direct musicalcommunication for something that is mysterious. as you'll soon see. but often, it's somethingmuch broader and somewhat more elusive to talk about. but again, it's about beingable to build this bridge, as bernstein used to say, between the finite and the infinite.i'm trying to be part of that bridge for everybody. is there a difference between looking at thevisuals and thinking of what to compose and reading the script and thinking of what tocompose? or do they come together as one force
operating on you? they come together, there's no questionabout it, because the visual is also an inspiration from what's on the written page, and i don'tsee any separation. in fact, when i read a script, as i did first from one of the firstdrafts from tim, i'm already imagining something which may not be exactly what happens whenwe crystallize it on the dome with the great talents of carter and everybody involved.but i think that, in a sense, they are always one, holistic, organic idea and i don'tsee much separation. carter, what was the hardest thing to visualizein this show? dark energy.
dark energy. because we have no idea whatit is. and we can't see it. we can measure it, but we don't actuallyknow what it is, even though we can characterize it increasingly well. yeah, it was a challengeâ€”it's sort ofthe like of the invisible man, in a way. it's like, the invisible man, you don't' seehim unless he's wrapped up in his clothing, bandages and so forth. but, whereas dark matteris something that can be calculated, essentially, and we can get a visual of that. you're referring to the original movie,the invisible man. where the clothes, he'd take his clothes off and then he'd beâ€”andhe'd just walk through walls and doors.
but he would never fall through the floorinto the basement, i never understood that. he could walk through walls. so, the challenge of representing that whichis dark. so, tim, do you have special vocabulary words for things we can't see? that's a good question. no, i don't haveany special ones, although thisâ€”the show, it's beginning to sound as if our emotionalrange is from "unsettling" to "deeply unsettling." with a little hint of triumph mixed in there. yes. it is amazing that one of the great discoveriesof cosmology has been all of these new phenomena
that are not understand. and dark energy,we have no idea what it is and yet you can virtually guarantee that there is a tremendousamount to be learned and that whatever it is we don't know about the vacuum is goingto be a major part of 21st century physics, assuming we can get to it in the 21st century. mordecai, what does it mean to talk aboutsomething about which we know nothing, but we can measure it? well... just give me some light on that. yeah.
so to speak. so, one of the amazâ€”really tremendous advancesin cosmology over the last decade or two is that we've gone from a very broad, generalconcept of, okay, the universe is expanding, but we don't really understand the details,to being able to measure the details to better than a few percent. this is what we call "precisioncosmology." and that is what has revealed some of theutterly strange, unexpected things that we've discovered recently is these precision measurements. the devil's in the details. the devil is in the details and popped rightout. and we have been forced into a very odd
picture of the universe and we've been forcedby repeated measurement, independently done by multiple groups and that is the essenceof science, is being able to go out, measure something, have someone else go out and measurethat, compare results. if it comes out the same, you know you're onto something. inthis case, we're onto the universe is accelerating outwards and is full of stuff that we cannotactually directly measure. at least not yet. we may be getting close on dark matter. vivian, is it like herding cats bringing everyonetogether? i know i was one of those cats. i like cats, though. okay. what i always wonder is, there are allthese pieces and they have to come together
and work as one coherent product. and i thinkthat's something that, as we said earlier, when that's done perfectly, no one noticesit. it's like, if you mow your lawn perfectly, you don't get compliments for that. or ifa man shaves perfectly, no one comes upâ€”hey, you did an awesome job shaving today! it'sonly when you don't that people complain. so, is there any aspect of this show thatyou at this point you think you might have done differently? anyplace where you messedup? yes. no, we never messed up. it's perfect.there are definitely things i would have done differently. this is the first time that i'veproduced one of these shows, so it was a huge learning curve for me and, you know, i'mbeing very genuine when i say that i feel
very lucky that i got to work with the teamthat i got to work with. but it's interesting. it'll take the exampleof dark energy. carter says it was the most difficult scene to direct. i think it wasa very difficult scene to write. it's one of the scenes that came together really inthe last weeks of production. and it's my favorite scene in the show. we went back andforth with how much is too much to say? what can we show? what would be too much at thatstage in the production? how do we really wrap this invisible force in some clothingthat would be compelling but not misleading? and i think that through all the work of theback and forth and the back and forth and the back and forth, everybody's ideas cametogether in a scene that is so compelling
and very dramatic and really emotionally anddramatically speaks to the essence of not just dark energy, but of dark universe, ofthe entire nature of the show. i'd like to add that generally, when youhave great technology and great datasets, what you find yourself doing is what othershad done before you but just better or higher resolution or maybe a little more compellingly.and in the show that you will all be seeing shortly, there are visualizations in therethat i've just never seen before. things that were not just better versions of whatcame before, they as far as i can tell were the only versions ever put forth. and, whenyou're on the frontier, when you're trying to describe that which we do not yet understandand the discoveries are relatively new, and
you rise to the challenge, then the show cantake on a whole other role on the landscape of science education. and so i just want totip my hat to the team and others not up here who sweated mightily over making these visualscome to life. mordecai, what's your tradeoff between somethingyou know has got to be in the show and something that is just not interesting or compelling,but you got to put it in to tell the story? where do you put thatâ€”where's the linein the sand for that? we always want to have someâ€”every scenehas to be compelling. so, if... visually? visually? visually and also intellectually. and...soevery time we have a concept that needs to
go in, we think about how are we going todo that? and perhaps the classic example is the topic of big bang nucleosynthesis. thatmeans that the universe was once hotter than the center of the sun and there were nuclearreactions, fusion reactions going on everywhereâ€”here, there, everywhere. how do we show that ina show? well, the measurement that convinced mostcosmologists was gas clouds against distant quasars three-quarters of the way across theuniverse. that would have been very difficult to visualize. the other measurement that came at the sametime was nasa dropped a probe into the giant planet jupiter. and so, and measured how muchone of the atoms forged in the big bangâ€”called
deuteriumâ€”was in the atmosphere in jupiter,where it had been preserved for the entire life of the solar system. that's prettydramatic. so you hand-pick, of the many ways sourcesof data, of information, you picked the oneâ€”because we know we can drop into jupiter's atmosphere,we got that. plus... well...it was a bit of work, but yeah, itended up pretty good. plus, it's one of your research specialties,is understanding what happens when things, when you go into an atmosphere of a planet. that's actually true, although i droppedrather bigger rocks than that little probe. i was one of the people who simulated...
you didn't actually drop the rocks. i simulated... you simulated dropping...yeah. sometimes hethinks what he does on the computer, he's doing it in reality. yeah, yeah, it's not reality, it's justa simulation. but it was a simulation of the impact of comet shoemaker-levy 9 on jupiter.and, in fact, we show one of those simulations hear in the planetarium. but it was also usedto predict what would happen so that telescopes around the world could observe that event. before we go, just see if there's any questionsfrom the press, robert, just another question
here. is there aâ€”when i think of music,i think ofâ€”you're manipulating emotion. so, is it fair for you to take emotion toa place because you have the power to do so, even if what's going on in front of theviewer doesn't warrant it? that's a very interesting question. i believeit's fair only in the sense that i'm, as a composer, my job is to personalize theexperience. and there is no way to personalize it and to distance yourself from a personalreaction. so i believe that it's okay to either disagree or feel differently aboutsomething, but i do believe that you want, from a composer, the commitment to what ihonestly felt when i saw something. and in the case, we're talking about the jupiterscene in the showâ€”is it just about this
incredible technological innovation by allof us floating us to the surface of the planet? or is it something really exciting? and tome, that idea is, it's really exciting. so it's honest for me and i think it'sfair for me to interject that. so, i just realized that, if you ever seea project that has a soundtrack and you're bored by it, we can all just blame the composer. you could. i'm justâ€”have another scapegoat here. but by the same token, if you really all loveit, you can also thank the score. take it to another place. are there questionswe have from anyone in the press? otherwise
i'll just keep talking here. yes? we wantto get a microphone to you, roberto's coming around. please identify yourself and whatpress outlet you represent. hi, i'm kyle mccarthy with family travelforum and i just have a question, you talked about addressing the dummies in the audienceor the laypeople and then how do you go another level so that children who are watching theshow understand? well, that's a great question. and it'scertainly one of the challenges. so our shows-- by the way, it's a challenge for everythingwe do at this museum. we have to ask, what is the target audience and what is the widthof age that that product can serve? so it wouldn't ever just be for the space showthat we hit this question. so, go ahead, vivian.
right, and i think even more than just a targetaudience, because we don't really want to limit our content that way, we like our contentto work in layers. so a very sophisticated astrophysicist who comes to see this showi think will get an awful lot of information than a 10-year-old will get. they will seethe astrophysical data, they will understand the nature of that data and the truth of thatdata. and they will appreciate that aspect of the show. whereas ... [audio glitch] ...more general audiences will get a story.kids may get the excitement, they'll get big ideas. they may not get every idea. buthopefully we've built the content such that
there is some scaffolding there that theycan build an understanding over the course of the show. we also have a pre-show that i think thatstars a young girl, that's playing on some of these screens. that i think will help prepareaudiences and especially children for what they're going to see in the dome and you'llsee that playing upstairs, i believe. and we also produce an educator's guideand a family guide that can be distributed to families and to educators that go intothe main ideas of the show in a way that can prepare people, either before they see theshow or help them understand and go deeper after the show.
yeah, if i can add further emphasis to thisâ€”oneof the mission statements of the institution...well, one of the ways the institution has manifesteditself, and i remember this since being a child coming here at age 9 and onward, there'sany kid can get something out of every exhibit. something. and then that's enough to stimulateinterest and you come back another time and you get a little more and then a little moreand a little more. and that's the layering that we were talking about. if your barrier to entry is very high, thenif you're below that level, you get nothing from that exhibit and what's the point?so, but it's a balance of how you layer that information in ways that offends neitherthe bottom end of the upper end, intellectually.
and, hopefully, it'll be inspirational toeverybody. did you have a quick addendum there? okay. sure. any other questions from...? okay, over there.coming up. hi, there. so, dave brody from space.com.i'm going to hang this question on tim ferris, but, please, other panelists feel free toanswer. creation of the universe, whole shebang, darkuniverse. you seem to have to keep rewriting the natural history of the universe. so myquestion is, how do you think of yourself? are you a reporter? are you guys reportersworking at a time scale much slower than the rest of us media hacks? or are you bards andpoets on behalf of the scientists who don't
have that voice? are you illuminators forthe endless procession of fifth-graders that go through the dome? how do you think of yourselves.thank you. well, those [talkover]. i was going to say, [hidden] plug for oneof tim's books, the whole shebang is actually one of tim's books. thank you. well, those all sound kind of appealing.i can't say i've thought very much about how to describe myself. i've just alwaysinterested in the most compelling and significant stories that i can...out of which i can makea piece of writing. and that has not been entirely cosmology, but it's such an amazingperiod that i keep returning to cosmology
and, as you suggest, it's a subject that,if you just come back after a decade, there'll be so many astonishingâ€”many of the thingsthat are in this show were simply unknown 15, 20 years ago. so you do in a sense have to keep updating,although it's not that the old stuff is wrong, it's that new, it's like the relationshipbetween bach and beethoven. you know, something new has been done on the basis of somethingthat was already very credible. i'd like to add thatâ€”oh, sure. so i'm in some sense a participant-observer.because i'm a research scientist, i'm working in the field, so what i'm bringingout here isâ€”hey, what's really exciting
that's going on now? and in some sense,that's what guides me and my fellow astrophysics curators, when we're focusing in on, well,what should a space show be about? it's what are the really deep and significant advancesin the field recently? yeah, all true. but at the end of the day,at the end of the day, our task at the hayden planetarium is to blow your mind. some of theâ€”just to talk about some of thedata and when we opened with passport to the universeâ€”when we started... ten years ago...12 years ago. yeah, 13 years ago, i guess. so, anyway, whenwe started, we had 3,000 galaxies. that was
in the dataset. in the dataset. [brant tullies]... in the three-dimensional dataset. dataset of galaxies going out to like thevirgo cluster. in the time since, we've had these large surveys come in. we've gotabout two million galaxies now and that's a huge testament to the technology and computationalresource and our ability to design the instrument computationally and gather the data, processit and visualize it and put it upstairs. but that's a very tiny percentageâ€”you takethe hubble deep field and you extrapolate across the visible universe we can see, weget several hundred billion galaxies. so we're
rather still a lot of work to do. but we attempt to bring that data to you andit's got difficulties in the sense that we've looked here and there, but we haven'tlooked over here. and we don't shy away from that in this production. and you can't.because that's the extent of our knowledge now. again, come back in a few decades andwe'll have more. but we keep that dataset... so there are gaps. ...updated and alive. yep. there are gaps in the distribution of knowngalaxies. and you will see them on the dome. there are stripes and artifacts, because herelie dragons. this has not yet been mapped.
there are probably not dragons there, but... are you sure, neil? no, i'm not sure. but what mordecai'ssaying, there are sections of, where we project the data, where there's data there, butnot there. and that's because the telescopes are located in spots on the earth or directedto positions on the sky that are not all sky surveys. and when that's the case, we'vegot to do the best with what we have and so we're quite honest about the display ofthat. let us bring this to a close. i want to thankthe internet audience for joining us in this panel and we've been seeing the twitterstream that has resulted from it with the
hashtag #darkuniverse. let's give our panel a round of applause,thank you all.Coloring Pages Of Animals In Their Habitats